EMPIRE BUILDING ESSAY.doc

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Department
Cultural Geography
Course
GCU 114
Professor
Daniel Hume
Semester
Summer

Description
WE ARE DONE. THAT’S IT. I have to work on other things now. >_> NOTE: We were not able to do Dutch vs. British! We deeply apologize for that. It’s pretty similar to Dutch vs. Spanish, however, except that the monarchies for Spain are much more powerful than the ones in Britain (for obvious reasons... no? English Civil War?). Other note: this is not as complete as I wanted it to be, but I hope it will still benefit you guys. I have a lot more work to do, so I’m sorry about that. =P I’d like you guys to acknowledge the following for their work/collaboration on this document: ● Kevin Chen ● Dena Behnam ● Roshan Agrawal ● Linyan Tian ● Arany Uthayakumar ● Yves Yang ● Vivian Lee ● Beverly Fu Thanks you guys! This is a COMP essay. For information on that, please see the rubric online. Each classes’ pairings are denoted. Note: Murphdawg got rid of the constraint of the time period in the essay and the thesis (but you might want to put it anyway in certain cases). Andersonian did not, and so students of Andersonian should modify the time period listed (1450-1750) to fit the topic if necessary. Russian vs. Spanish (Murphy, 3rd)(Murphy, 6th)(Anderson, 2nd)(Anderson, 4th) Russian Empire Spanish Empire Types of ● land based empire ● maritime empire Empires ○ limited in the regions it could choose ○ overseas colonies in South America (and (Methods of to take (had to expand in concentric some in North America, ex. Nova Albion), Expansion) circles (taking land beyond the Ural funded by King Ferdinand and Queen Mtns., then Siberia, and back beyond Isabella the Ural to the borders of the ○ developed a royal navy for this purpose, and Ottoman Empire/Europe) for controlling trade routes ○ hired the Cossacks to claim and settle new land ○ cause: geographic location (it’s in the middle of Asia, with little access to water) Social ● religious tolerance ● religious intolerance Policies ○ Peter the Great, in studying the ○ The Spanish Inquisition- Jews and Muslims successes of Europeans, discovered being kicked out, digging a deeper hole for that their tolerance of many different Spain. (Bankers and scholars/educators cultures attracted many skilled gone). craftspeople/traders that were fleeing ○ worked hard to eliminate Jews and Muslims persecution from the Spanish population, used violence ○ he then encouraged this in his own and executions to do so empire ● use of compulsory labor ● use of compulsory labor ○ African slaves who worked on plantations, ○ origins: originally peasants (which Amerindian slaves who worked in silver isn’t considered coercive labor), but mines because they lost many rights, such ○ used oppressive systems, such as the as the period of time when they could encomienda system (forced labor) and mita change owners, they became serfs system (rotational labor obligations that paid because they were bound to the land really low) (pretty much) ○ half of Russia’s population; a hereditary status, the serfs provided the agriculture for Russia and supported the landowners (making up 2 percent of the population) Rise to ● Princes of Muscovy drove out Golden Horde ● Reconquest of Iberia from Muslim rule (religious power: ○ ruthlessly annexed Russian state of crusade) conquesting Novgorod ○ Christian victory in 1212 broke backbone of lands ○ Prince Ivan IV conquered Khanates Muslims, leading to the capturing of Cordova (similarity) of Kazan and Astrakhan, and the and Seville northern Caucasus ○ Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand led to permanent union of their kingdoms into Spain ○ Granada conquest secured final Muslim territory in Iberia ○ Use of Christian knights Political ● efforts to centralize monarchical power (with ● efforts to centralize monarchical power (with rather Power rather disappointing results) disappointing results) ○ tsars reduced the power of the ○ Spanish unification of Iberian kingdoms traditional nobility (boyars), especially ○ centralized under a prominent condition: Ivan IV (when he divided the boyars religion (persecuted those that were not into favored and unfavored classes) Catholic) ○ also took away boyars’ rights to ○ all colonization was done imperially choose to serve different princes ○ tried to limit colonies’ trade to only Spain (were essentially bound to certain (kind of failed in that regard, as the colonies’ princes) resorted to black markets and illegal trade), ○ promoted officers based on merit similar to the British Navigation Acts ○ absolutist reign (Peter the Great: took (mercantilist policies that failed) away rights of the peasants to leave ○ appointed viceroys and such in South service of one landlord, making them America, but due to limitations on technology serfs; “not obliged to answer anyone and geographical distance, such government in the world for his doings”) officials had a lot of their own power ○ despite Ivan/Peter’s efforts, it’s virtually impossible to really centralize so large of a land empire Colonies: ● Coasts of Canada and Alaska ● Americas differed in ○ not completely successful because ○ Used mercantilism to provide profit to Spain their success the cost of transportation was too through silver and other raw materials (difference) high for the amount of profit they ○ religiously unified under Christianity, made spreading faith to new colonies ○ too vast of an empire to begin ● Philippines/West Indies worrying about colonization ○ sugar cane and tobacco plantations SAMPLE THESES Between 1450-1750, the Russian and Spanish empires had different methods of expansion and policies on religious tolerance, but were similar in the way they rose to power. Between 1450-1750, the Russian and Spanish empires colonized overseas with varying degrees of success, but were similar in their use of coercive labor and efforts to centralize monarchical power. Spanish vs. Ottoman (Murphy, 3rd)(Murphy, 6th) Spanish Empire Ottoman Empire Types of ● maritime empire ● land based empire Empires ○ cause: geography (proximity near ○ cause: geography and history as Turkish water, as well as the ability to access nomads, horse riders (and the fact that there the Atlantic Ocean) were already dominant naval powers in ○ possessed colonies in the West places like the Mediterranean) Indies, in South America (spread out ○ large expansion, but could only conquer their colonies) neighbors Declination ● economic failures ● military defeats ○ under the rule of King Phillip II, ○ Jannisaries were the key fighting force for the invested in many failed projects (ex. Ottomans (because they were willing to use Spanish Armada) firearms, while the cavalry was not), but they ○ cause: huge influx of silver from the started focusing more on trade/crafting and New World was kept in the royal becoming a wealthy middle class, which treasury and squandered on luxuries hindered their military strength from China, not toward developing a ○ the cavalry, which was a large part of the homegrown economy (ex. putting it army, was displaced to fund the Jannisaries in banks) ○ result: weaker and weaker armies, consistent military defeats after they were turned back at Vienna ○ Funding for Jannisaries came from tax farming (caused rebellions) and silver inflation that further undermined economy Social ● religious intolerance ● religious tolerance Policies ○ The Spanish Inquisition- Jews and ○ forced non-Muslims to pay a tax, but allowed Muslims being kicked out, digging a them to retain their religions anyway deeper hole for Spain. (Bankers and scholars/educators gone). ● use of compulsory labor ○ worked hard to eliminate Jews and ○ Islamic slaves were often used for soldiers ○ this is echoed with the Jannisaries, who were Muslims from the Spanish population, used violence and originally Christian prisoners of war and were executions to do so equipped with expensive stuff ● use of compulsory labor ○ later, they were selected through the ○ African slaves who worked on devshirme system (collected as “tribute,” in a plantations, Amerindian slaves who worked in silver mines way) ○ cause: Arabic slaves were originally used for ○ used oppressive systems, such as soldiers anyway (Mamluk Turks, anyone?) the encomienda system (forced labor) and mita system (rotational ○ over time: became a wealthy middle class labor obligations that paid really low) that focused on trading/crafting ○ unlike Jannisaries, there is little room ○ effect: made the empire lose money, because to move in the social ladder ○ cause: they needed cheap, mass the Jannisaries were getting more powerful, labor (that was the reason they more numerous, and more expensive to pay; the empire had to displace cavalrymen and started to treat them better, so they had a higher survival rate) their land, which caused revolts later ○ effect: racism, depopulation in Africa, unique Afro-Caribbean culture in places like the West Indies SAMPLE THESES Between 1450-1750, the Spanish and Ottoman empires differed in their methods of expansion and the way their empires were declining, but were similar in their use of compulsory labor to benefit the empire/religious intolerance. Russian vs. British (Murphy, 3rd)(Murphy, 6th)(Anderson, 2nd)(Anderson, 4th) Russian Empire British Empire Political Tsar Constitutional Monarchy centralization ● autocratic, absolutist leader (as seen by the ● Parliament had greater power than the king reign of Peter the Great and the reign of ● this was established by the English Bill of Rights in Ivan IV) 1689 (see English Civil War for the cause) ● always tried to limit the power of the boyars, ● Parliament has to be called frequently and must be traditional nobility consulted when raising an army during peacetime ● Ivan IV split up the boyars into his favored ● monarch becomes only a symbolic figure nobles and the ones he wanted to get rid of ● Peter the Great brought Russian Orthodox Church more firmly under state control, turned peasants into serfs, got rid of many traditional rights of boyars (replaced them with an advisory council) Types of ● land based empire ● maritime empire Empires ○ limited in the regions it could choose ○ New World colonies (in North America) to take (had to expand in concentric ○ colonization of India circles (taking land beyond the Ural ○ cause: geography (had access to Atlantic Mtns., then Siberia, and back system); maritime colonization inspired by the beyond the Ural to the borders of the Iberian kingdom’s colonies Ottoman Empire/Europe) ○ had overseas colonies, but they weren’t very successful (Canada, Alaska, cost of transportation too high) ○ hired the Cossacks to claim and settle new land ○ cause: geographic location (it’s in the middle of Asia, with little access to water) Social ● rise of centralized power rose led to ● English settlement of Chesapeake Bay region Policies decreased freedom of peasants ○ Moscovy rulers rule nobles with land introduce indentured servants (same race as free settlers) grants that peasants were ○ person that can’t pay for t
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