Thanksgiving Compare and Contrast.doc

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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Compare and Contrast Societies (Thanksgiving) REMEMBER,NO DELETING! No deleting at all. I’ll verify facts myself if they’re wrong. Otherwise, we make no progress. — Edward Deletion of material on the chart means excommunication. AS IN, BAN HAMMER. Oh, btw, I will delete stuff if necessary. — Edward Purple text means I have a problem with it: I’m not sure if this is correct, this needs more elaboration/evidence, etc. Just provide evidence that it actually happened, or provide more evidence, or it just doesn’t fit and I’m wondering why it’s there. Highlighted means similarities Points of DifferenceSilk Road Indian Ocean Trading Network Regions Affiliated ● Ming weren’t able to use the Silk Road because the ● Africa, Middle East, India, South China, Mallaca Mongols still controlled it ● The Ming was forced to use the sea routes (Zheng He) ● Rome, Byzantine Empire, also the middle east because the Mongols controlled the Silk Road ● 2000 BCE- Sumerian records indicate regular trade between Mesopotamia, islands of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and the Indus Valley. Goods Traded ● Leaving China: peaches, apricots, cinnamon, ginger, ● Cotton textiles, peppers, food grains, timber, horses, spices silk, porcelain, grape wine, stringed instruments,precious metals, jewels, rare spices iron?, sugar/spice, tea ● Prosperous Muslim cities provided demand for valuable ● Brought to China: alfalfa, grapes, pistachios, walnuts, goods. pomegranates, sesame, coriander, spinach, and other new crops to China ● Jasmine oil, oak galls, sal ammoniac, copper oxides, zinc, precious stones were used by Chinese doctors ● The Silk Road brought many new crops to Mesopotamia such as cotton, sugarcane, rice, citrus, and other plants from India and China Management ● Some sections controlled by one entity trying to contr●l Seasonal monsoon winds facilitated long-distance trade- trade cities/collect taxes be more specific, this could beeant sailors could go straight across the ocean instead linked to “cooperative and decentralized” for a of sticking to the shore. similarity. ● Cooperative and decentralized ● Trade over the Silk Road was definitely lower than in theBased on commercial interests rather than political Mediterranean due to the long distances. authorities. ● Rise of the Sassanid Empire in Iran led to walled Iranian cities that served as military strongholds protecting long- distance trade Impact ● 431: A council of Bishops called by the Byzantine Empire ● Caused cultural diffusion by marriages of sailors with local declared Nestorian Christians heretics because they women emphasize the humanness of Christ. They were ● persecuted, so many became missionaries on the Silk Road. ● A preacher named Mani created a new religion in Mesopotamia known as Manichaeism, which was the dualist faith of the stuggle between good and evil, and was derived from Zoroastrianism. After he died, this religion continued to spread across the Silk Road. ● Rise of the Sasaanid Empire in Iran led to walled Iranian cities that served as military strongholds protecting long- distance trade ● Prosperous traders (both Turks and Iranians)built stately homes with decorated wall paintings showing people wearing Iranian and Chinese clothing ● Missionary influences exemplified the influences of foreign customs and beliefs on the peoples on the Silk Road; military technology was the opposite, steppe customs went to foreign lands, such as chariots and mountain bowmen. ● The stirrup came from the Kushan people. It’s important. Miscellaneous ● People of the steppes were better suited for long-distance Traders rarely retained political ties with their homeland travel than the Chinese ● The culture of Indian Ocean ports were often isolated from ● Trading demands that brought the Silk Road into being the hinterlands. (Thehinterland is the land or district were: Chinese eagerness for Western products and the behind the borders of a coast or river.) organized Parthian end who captured the markets from ● Colonies established by traders were sometimes socially the Seleucids distinctive, but rarely in dependant of local political ● By 100: Greeks could by Chinese silk from Parthian powers. traders, but the caravans that brought them also bought ● The rise of Islam gave it an important boost and sold goods on the way in prosperous Central Asian cities like Samarkand and Bukhara. These cities flourished under the rule of local princes. ● The use of these new crops increased slowly, and they became more important later ● The Sassanids established Zoroastrianism and Christianity as the official state religions, and this politicalization of religion greatly affected the culture of the Silk Road FOCUS ON GOVERNMENT, MILITARY, AND ECONOMY. LOOK AT POSSIBLE THESISTO SEEWHY. Aztec Inca Location and Impact ● Located at small islands in Lake Texcoco and built two ● Centered in a valley of Cuzco; stretched from Maule River, of Geography capitols, Tenochtitlan and Tlateloloco. Chile to N. Ecuador and Pacific Ocean across Andes to ● They were also able to seize additional farming territory Argentina through these land reclamation projects (construction of● They had to drain swamps, make terraces, and build huge dike, to separate freshwater and saltwater parts of irrigation Lake Texcoco, extension of irrigated fields, areas for chinampas) ● Land was fairly arable, but needed one-fourth of tribute in food to feed population. Military ● Military successes, and fought for war captives. ● Had strong centralized military power under their king ● They also fought for tribute. ● It was a requirement of the king to expand the Inca ● Warfare allowed for territorial conquest (seize land and empire, so when a new ruler took power he usually peasant labor) launched a massive military campaign; legitimatized ● War legitimated rulers’ rule and gave prestige to warrior throne elites if they succeeded. ● Used bronze and copper weapons Technology ● Chinampas were floating islands, allowed them to farm on ● They were skilled stone craftsmen, put stone blocks land that would otherwise be unusable. (environmental together with mortar impact too) Aztecs did not invent them, but used them. ● Like the Maya, their priests were concerned with astronomy and had a calendar similar to the Maya ● Were very skilled weavers of cotton, llama, and alpaca wool ● Were skilled in crafting tools, weapons, and decorations out of copper, bronze, gold, and silver Economy ● Barter system used for trade. ● The economy and trade was overseen by the state power Difference ● Extensive tributary system provided over ⁄ of the Aztec and ayllus (local chiefdoms) 4 Food supply food supply ● No merchant class because the government ran the ● Rich array of goods as far as Central America and the majority of the trade (Social too) Southwestern border of North America. ● The Inca got specialized goods through the tributary ● Because there were no draft animals or wheeled vehicles, system only lightweight valuables such as gold, jewels, feathered Produced own goods through developments in weaving garments, etc. were traded. and metallurgy ● Merchants who controlled long-distance trade became ● Depended on Mit’a (rotational organized labor force) to especially wealthy provide food supply and labor ● The Mit’a was a rotation labor draft that worked the fields, tended to llama and alpaca herds, built and maintained roads, bridges, temples, palaces, and large irrigation and drainage projects, produced textiles and goods. Women and Social ● Accentuated social class divisions; upper class possessed ●Mit’a system organized workers from ayllus (clans) extensive estates while lower classes received few if an● Extreme gap in status between the elite and the material rewards commoners ● Nobles were polygamous and lived in large two story ● The royal court was removed from the whole of society houses, consumed rich and flavorful diet (with spices, ● Pastoralism practiced; men traded, women weaved protein), while commoners ate limited staples, lived in small dwellings ● Merchants had to be careful about displaying wealth because although they were successful, they did not have privileges of the elite ● War captives, criminals, slaves were sacrificial victims ● Clan members maintained common ritual life, cared for sick and elderly, fought together as military units Culture ● Gods identified with nature, war, agriculture ● King was though to be the descendant of the sun, their ● Used sacrificial rituals as part of the culture to appease primary god gods. ● To be king had to expand the imperial boundaries ● Religion dominated public life, polygamy. ● The king had to take part in many rituals, feasts, and sacri
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