Empire Theses and Charts.doc

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Department
Cultural Geography
Course
GCU 114
Professor
Daniel Hume
Semester
Summer

Description
Empire Charts: Compare and Contrast Possible Points of Comparison Murphy 3rd Period Spain vs. Ottoman Russia vs Spain Russia vs. England Britian vs. Ottoman Dutch vs. Spain Murphy 6th Period Ottoman vs. England Ottoman vs. Spain: Russia vs Spain Russia vs. England Anderson 2nd Period Dutch vs. Spanish Dutch vs. British Dutch vs. Russia Dutch vs. Ottoman Spanish vs. British Spanish vs. Russia Spanish vs. Ottoman British vs. Russia British vs. Ottoman Forbidden topics: Economy, social, government structure, etc. Theses and Outlines Possible Comparison Points (Within Empire Building): Common Enemy, Trade, Colonies, at Home Every point of comparison has to tie back to empire building. Dutch vs. British: Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the Dutch and British empires both overcame severe challenges from rival powers and then used mercantilism to expand their territories, but were dissimilar in Outline: test Dutch vs. Russia: Between the 1500s and the 1800s, the Dutch and Russian empires were similar in their Outline: test Dutch vs. Ottoman: Between the 1500s and the 1800s, Outline: test Spanish vs. British: Between the 1500s and the 1750s, the Spanish and British empires were different in the main ways they created profit from their overseas empires and methods of overseas conquest, but similar in their alienation of the religious minorities. Outline: 1. Spain’s colonies produced mineral goods (silver and gold). Britain’s colonies produced plantation goods (tobacco, et cetera) a. Details 2. Spain got lucky when they hastily conquered without planning, the British planned more. a. Details 3. Spain kicked out Muslims and Jews, Britain made the Protestants and Puritans really angry. a. Details Dutch vs. Spanish: Between the 1500s and the 1800s, both the Dutch and Spanish were heavily dependent on maritime expansion, but were different in their political unity and basis of their economy. Outline: 1. The Dutch and the Spanish both developed overseas empires a. Both the Dutch and the Spanish relied on dominance of maritime trade routes. The Dutch developed the West/East India Trading companies (later kicked out of Atlantic circuit due to Navigation acts) and the Spanish also participated in the Indian Ocean as well as the triangular Atlantic trade. This also led to the development of maritime technology such as improved Spanish/Dutch ships. 2. The Dutch focused on overseas trade in the Americas while the Spanish focused on mineral wealth from the Americas a. The Dutch had commercial/industrial pursuits in controlling the ports of the Indian Ocean. Textile production and exports were also primarily based at home. b. Spanish established plantations in Latin America, based on sugar production which led them to exploit the natives and increase demand in the slave trade. 3. The Dutch used private trading companies in their overseas expansion while the Spanish Crown funded overseas expansion Could also talk about what went on at home while they developed their empires a. Dutch was a confederacy, funded by their colonies, decentralized, Dutch West India Trading Company and Dutch East India Trading Company. b. Spanish ventures funded by King Ferdinand/Queen Elizabeth (basically the throne). All ventures as well as establishment of charter/private trading companies was under the consent of the King. Spanish vs. Russia: Between 1500 and 1800, the Spanish and Russian Empires were similar in that both used coercive labor while expanding their empires and that they used the services of specific military groups to expand, but differed in how much they valued overseas expansion. Outline: 1. As they expanded, the Spanish and Russian Empires used forced labor in the forms of slavery and serfdom, respectively. a. Spain used the encomienda and mita systems that forced Amerindians to mine silver and gold in Latin American colonies. b. As silver and gold mining became more profitable the Spanish worsened these systems for the Amerindians by making them work more and pay more tribute with little in return. c. In response the Amerindian peoples moved to Spanish colonies as permanent wage laborers. African slaves were also employed in plantations but were not as common. d. After the Amerindian populations declined and African slaves became cheaper, the Spanish began to import African slaves in large quantities. e. African slaves were barred from positions in the church and crafts and Africans who spoke different languages were put together in slave barracks so that they would not be able to communicate or up-rise. f. After 1700, as Russia became a more powerful empire, the agricultural system began to move towards serfdom. g. The tsar would reward loyal nobles with land grants that came with peasants to work it. As the tsar’s power grew, the peasants lost their freedom; they were originally allowed a period where they could switch lords to work under which forced the lords to treat them better. h. During periods of political turmoil many of the peasants fled into neighboring lands to escape oppression. i. After peace returned the nobles wanted to tie these peasants back to the land so they could not leave again. The period when which peasants could switch lords was removed and peasants were effectively turned into serfs. j. Serfs became a hereditary position and by 1795 half of the population was serfs. k. In both of these cases the people who were taken advantage for to provide labor both were of a lower class. Africans in Spain lost much of their freedom much like the peasants of Russia as time went on because the higher class land owners in both societies wanted a form of labor that was cheap and productive. 2. The expansion of the Spanish and Russian Empires was primarily due to a specific military group employed for the purpose. a. After the Spanish Crown discovered the Americas they set out to conquer it b. Conquistadors ruthlessly conquered parts of Latin America, such as Hernán Cortés who conquered the Aztecs and Francisco Pizarro who conquered the Incas. c. During their expansionist phase the Russians hired a group of mercenaries known as Cossacks d. The Russian family known as the Strogonovs hired the Cossacks to take over the Siberia and defeat the Khanate of Sibir e. They are believed to have found all of the major Russian towns in Siberia and gained a political foothold during expansion f. The Spanish were able to conquer the Americas so easily because they had advanced weapons compared to the peoples they were conquering, were thought of as gods, and because the people they were conquering were weakened by new diseases. g. Similarly, the Cossacks had military superiority over the fishing and hunting peoples of Siberia and were able to sweep through the land with ease. Peoples did continue to resist new Russian rule, but unsuccessfully. 3. While the Spanish were more focused on overseas expansion in the Americas the Russians preferred to expand locally. a. Spain’s Original expeditions overseas were looking for a faster route to Asia in search of trade, but instead these explorers found a new world. After Columbus and other Spanish explorers successfully found and began to colonize South America, Spain began to focus on extracting the wealth from there. b. Superior weapons and the Amerindians’ lack of immunity gave the Spanish an upper hand in the conquest of America. Within 100 years of its discovery, Spanish America constituted parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. c. Colonies were created with the excuse of converting Amerindians to Christianity but truly to exploit the mineral wealth of the land. Gold and silver was especially abundant in Latin America and deposits in cities such as Potosi developed into great mining operations. d. Spain also continued to monopolize trade in their new colonies and a large amount of silver began to flow back into Europe. e. Once the Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain control of Latin America their control was solidified. f. A major reason for the difference was that the Western European nations had established the borders of the countries that were nearly permanent, and did not allow the Spanish to expand locally. The so called “balance of power” in Europe was that European states would naturally form temporary alliances to stop one another from becoming too powerful, effectively limiting Spain’s chance to gain territory from surrounding nations and pushing them to expand overseas. g. The Russians, on the other hand, had a small nation that was newly free from the Golden Horde. Muscovy princes set out to conquer so that Russia would develop as a new empire, beginning with the amalgamation of neighboring Siberia with its profitable fur trade. h. Even if they wanted maritime expansion, it would be impossible since the only city that connected to the rest of the world by open water was Arkangelsk and its port was frozen for much of the year. i. Russia extended partially into Alaska after about 300 years of local expansion, but that land was minimal in comparison to Spain’s vast American empire. Spanish vs. Ottoman: Thesis: From the 1500s to the 1750s, the Spanish and Ottoman Empires were similar in that they both had loose control of their territories and that both of their declines arose through economic mismanagement, but differed in that the Spanish had a large overseas empire, while the Ottomans remained in Europe. Spain vs ottoman something is wrong in the thesis instead of the last thing in the thesis saying the ottomans remained in Europe it should be preferred to expand locally Outline: 1. As they expanded their respective empires over greater and greater amounts of territory, the Spanish and Ottoman Empires experienced difficulties in asserting direct control over their domains. a. Spanish attempted to establish royal control of colonies via Council of the Indies, but failed in doing so because of the vast distance between Spain and its American colonies and between the colonies themselves. It would take 6 months to get from Mexico to Peru, a time that deterred continuous communication. b. Due to this distance, viceroys had almost unlimited freedom from the Spanish Crown. c. Until the 17th century almost all high officials were born in Spain but due to economic mismanagement the Spanish government was forced to sell positions to locals, lowering the Crowns influence on the colonial government d. The Ottoman’s central power declined as time went on. e. At first, the sultans gave grants of land to resident cavalrymen. These cavalrymen were free to tax and administer justice within these territories as long as they reported for war when called. f. After the sultans began to reduce the role of the cavalry in favor of the janissary corps, tax farming took the place of the land grant system. Over time, the central Ottoman government was forced to sell tax farming rights permanently for local governors, making them more or less private landowners and further reducing the power of the central Ottoman government. 2. The declines of the Spanish and Ottoman Empires both occurred due to economic mismanagement. a. Spain’s new Latin American colonies began to bring in large amounts of silver and gold bullion back to Europe b. This large amount of silver that flowed caused severe inflation in Spanish colonies c. As Spain traded with other areas of Eurasia the silver reached the Ottoman Empire where it also caused inflation d. As money became a greater and greater issue in both of these empires they were forced to make decisions that began their decline e. Spain had fought a series of wars throughout the 16th century that drained the royal treasury and caused them to default on their debts f. The expulsion of Jewish merchants removed a profitable class of people that worsened Spain’s economic situation g. Spain in turn imposed heavy taxes on its Dutch colony who in turn revolted, further ruining Spain financially h. The influx of silver into the Ottoman Empire effected the land grant system and effectively ended it, causing cavalrymen to be laid off from armies and become a restive element of the empire i. Increased surtaxes caused internal strife as peasants and religious scholars could not afford them j. Revolts broke out and the Ottoman administration was weakened. The Sultan’s power declined significantly and he remained in his palace while the Janissaries continued to gain influence k. During the Tulip period of the empire, where gala soirees were used to mask the instability of the Empire, the Ottomans were plagued with Janissary revolts such as the one led by Patrona Halil. 3. While the Spanish were more focused on overseas expansion in the Americas the Ottomans preferred to expand locally. a. Spain’s Original expeditions overseas were looking for a faster route to Asia in search of trade, but instead these explorers found a new world. After Columbus and other Spanish explorers successfully found and began to colonize South America, Spain began to focus on extracting the wealth from there. b. Superior weapons and the Amerindians’ lack of immunity gave the Spanish an upper hand in the conquest of America. Within 100 years of its discovery, Spanish America constituted parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. c. Colonies were created with the excuse of converting Amerindians to Christianity but truly to exploit the mineral wealth of the land. Gold and silver was especially abundant in Latin America and deposits in cities such as Potosi developed into great mining operations. d. Spain also continued to monopolize trade in their new colonies and a large amount of silver began to flow back into Europe. e. Once the Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain control of Latin America their control was solidified. f. A major reason for the difference was that the Western European nations had established the borders of the countries that were nearly permanent, and did not allow the Spanish to expand locally. The so called “balance of power” in Europe was that European states would naturally form temporary alliances to stop one another from becoming too powerful, effectively limiting Spain’s chance to gain territory from surrounding nations and pushing them to expand overseas. g. The Ottomans, on the other hand, controlled a strategic point of trade at the Dardanelles strait and had room to expand. h. Surrounding Empires in that region changed periodically and the borders of these states were not permanent. i. The Ottomans used Christian Janissaries who were willing to use guns and fight Muslims j. The devshirme system allowed the Ottomans to continue to take Christian boys from the Balkans and turn them in soldiers k. The Ottomans had a navy but it wasn’t as large as Spain’s and the only time it was used was to fight Portugal in which it lost l. The Ottomans expanded into the Balkans, through Iraq, and up to the Safavid in Iran who they clashed with British vs. Russia: Thesis: Between the 1500s and the 1750s, the British and the Russian Empires differed in how much they valued overseas expansion and how much control the monarch had over his or her domain while they empire grew, but were similar in that both used coercive labor while expanding their empires. Outline: 2. While the British were more focused on overseas expansion in the Americas and the Indian Ocean the Russians preferred to expand locally. a. Britain moved into overseas exploration in the late 16th century to establish colonies on the eastern coast of North America and develop trade in the Indian Ocean b. Britain gave private and charter companies a larger role in the exploration and founding of colonies in America. Example: the Virginia Company founded Jamestown / Massachusetts Bay Colony. c. The British Crown eventually took more of a role in colonial matters by controlling trade with the Navigation Acts and other mercantilist policies, defeating the French in the French and Indian War to end their control of Canada, and taking control of the colonial government by ending assemblies and appointing its own governors. d. In the Indian Ocean, the East India Company competed with Dutch traders for cotton, silk, and sugar trade. e. The reason British and Russian expansion differed was because in Britain, Protestants like Puritans, Pilgrims, and Quakers wanted freedom from the Church of England and thought escape to America would allow them to practice their religion in peace. (The Massachusetts Bay Colony was actually a company of Puritans which took the charter with them so the Crown could not change the agreement that allowed them to colonize.) The Russians did not have a large group of people who opposed Orthodox Christianity. f. Another reason for the difference was that the Western European nations had established the borders of the countries that were nearly permanent, and did not allow the British to expand locally. The so called “balance of power” in Europe was that European states would naturally form temporary alliances to stop one another from becoming too powerful, effectively limiting Britain’s chance to gain territory from surrounding nations and pushing them to expand overseas. g. The Russians, on the other hand, had a small nation that was newly free from the Golden Horde. Muscovy princes set out to conquer so that Russia would develop as a new empire, beginning with the amalgamation of neighboring Siberia with its profitable fur trade. h. Even if they wanted maritime expansion, it would be impossible since the only city that connected to the rest of the world by open water was Arkangelsk and its port was frozen for much of the year. i. Russia extended partially into Alaska after about 300 years of local expansion, but that land was minimal in comparison to Britain’s vast American empire. 3. Throughout expansion, the British Empire utilized and built upon a shared government power while the Russian Empire grew under an autocratic rule. a. During the time period Britain’s government consisted of the King and Parliament b. King Charles I ruled for 11 years without calling on Parliament to evade an check on his power but was forced to summon them in 1640 to approve taxes to pay for an army against Scottish rebellions c. Parliament told Charles that in return for passing the bill he would never be allowed to ignore their rights, but he refused d. What resulted was the English Civil War which ended with Charles being executed e. Kings that refused Parliament continued until King James II was exiled in the Glorious Revolution for his refusal to accept parliament and the English Bill of Rights was created to make it so parliament had to be called on regularly so it would have a say in political matters f. Once they had conquered sufficient territory, Russia was headed by a tsar, the equivalent of Rome’s caesar, signifying his all powerful rule g. Rulers like Ivan the Terrible wanted to take away power from boyars, a noble class, by reducing their role in government h. The boyars retaliated by removing the Muscovite ruling line and replaced with the Romanovs, which ended acting exactly the same as the Romanov ruler Peter the Great reduced their power in the government and the army and did not allow them to pass their remaining positions by heredity. i. Peter the Great also created the city of St. Petersburg and westernized the roles of women in his society to make Russia more like Western Europe, another sign of his unchecked rule j. Catherine the Great continued the line and instituted a set of laws that did not allow anyone to question her rule 4. As they expanded, the British and Russian Empires used forced labor in the forms of slavery and serfdom, respectively. a. Britain’s initial compulsory labor system was composed of indentured servants b. These were British who could not afford a passage to the new world and signed indentures (contracts) that bound them to labor in return for free passage to America and a small parcel of land after their contract was up c. Indentured servants were not as risky as slaves during early colonization period because they cost less and lived just as long, but once life expectancy rose plantation owners found that an initial investment in a slave would have a better return d. Due to this the slave population of New England colonies grew 10 times between 1660 and 1756 e. After 1700, as Russia became a more powerful empire, the agricultural system began to move towards serfdom f. The tsar would reward loyal nobles with land grants that came with peasants to work it g. As the tsar’s power grew, the serfs lost their freedom; they were originally allowed a period where they could switch lords to work under which forced the lords to treat them better. h. During periods of political turmoil many of the peasants fled into neighboring lands to escape oppression. i. After peace returned the nobles wanted to tie these peasants back to the land so they could not leave again. The period when which peasants could switch lords was removed and peasants were effectively turned into serfs j. Serfs were hereditary and by 1795 half of the population was serfs k. In both of these cases the people who were taken advantage for to provide labor both were of a lower class; indentured servants, slaves, and serfs were owned by nobles who wanted workers British vs. Ottoman: Thesis: From 1500 to 1750, the Ottoman and British Empires were different how much they valued overseas expansion and their administrations’ toleration for religion, but were similar in that both had loose control of their territories. Outline 1. While the British were more focused on overseas expansion in the Americas and the Indian Ocean, the Ottomans preferred to expand locally. a. Britain moved into overseas exploration in the late 16th century to establish colonies on the eastern coast of North America and develop trade in the Indian Ocean b. Britain gave private and charter companies a larger role in the exploration and founding of colonies in America. Example: the Virginia Company founded Jamestown / Massachusetts Bay Colony. c. The British Crown eventually took more of a role in colonial matters by controlling trade with the Navigation Acts and other mercantilist policies, defeating the French in the French and Indian War to end their control of Canada, and taking control of the colonial government by ending assemblies and appointing its own governors. d. In the Indian Ocean, the East India Company competed with Dutch traders for cotton, silk, and sugar trade. e. A reason for the difference was that the Western European nations had established the borders of the countries that were nearly permanent, and did not allow the British to expand locally. The so called “balance of power” in Europe was that European states would naturally form temporary alliances to stop one another from becoming too powerful, effectively limiting Britain’s chance to gain territory from surrounding nations and pushing them to expand overseas. f. The Ottomans, on the other hand, controlled a strategic point of trade at the Dardanelles strait and had room to expand. g. Surrounding Empires in that region changed periodically and the borders of these states were not permanent. h. The Ottomans used Christian Janissaries that were willing to use guns and fight Muslims i. The devshirme system allowed the Ottomans to continue to take Christian boys from the Balkans and turn them in soldiers j. The Ottomans had a navy but it wasn’t as large as Spain’s and wasn’t used except in defensive warfare k. The Ottomans expanded into the Balkans, through Iraq, and up to the Safavid in Iran who they clashed with l. The Ottomans actually had a chance to advance into the Indian Ocean when asked by merchants from Sumatra to defend them from the Portuguese but declined to do so because the Ottomans felt that it was not necessary to waste resources to fight in the Ocean when they had an extensive land empire and the Portuguese were not a major threat 2. While the British Empire was less accepting of many religions the Ottoman Empire effectively incorporated people of different religions to benefit the growth of its empire. a. In Britain the Protestant Reformation caused conflict not between the papacy and Protestants but between the Church of England, which was controlled by the king, and many specific reformist groups within that church b. These groups were denied voices in the overall aspects in the church, such as the ignorance of the Puritan’s want to remove bishops completely from the Church of England c. Protestants like Puritans, Pilgrims, and Quakers wanted freedom from the Church of England and thought escape to America would allow them to practice their religion in peace. (The Massachusetts Bay Colony was actually a company of Puritans which took the charter with them so the Crown could not change the agreement that allowed them to colonize.) d. In the Ottoman Empire, on the other hand, Islam was well established and Christian Janissaries were incorporated into the military. e. The Ottoman Turks were Sunni Muslims and the majority of the population they controlled was too f. During the latter period of Ottoman control many minorities such as Armenians, Greeks, and Jews entered the borders g. Islam forbade Muslims from forced conversion so many of these minorities remained, practicing their religion and participating in trade such as at the port of Izmir 3. Both the British and Ottoman Empires lacked administrative strictness over conquered territories. a. In the English colonies in the Americas, the colonies lived under the Laiezz-faire policy in which they lived semi-independently b. Since England was geographically distant and distracted by wars being fought in Europe, the colonies were allowed to establish their own rule without much interference. c. House of Burgesses was the first form of democratic rule that was established in the colonies d. When the British Crown took a more active role in the colonies, they responded with disdain at the policies which limited their political economic freedoms and contributed the unrest that culminated in the American Revolution e. Similarly, the Ottoman commoners turned to local leaders and notables instead of the Sultanate f. Additionally, the local leaders were free to interpret the Shari’ah as they wanted while the sultan stayed in his palace g. In fact, the only administrative interference was from the sultan’s viziers, which lead to the decline of the sultan’s actual power. h. The Ottoman’s central power declined as time went on. i. At first, the sultans gave grants of land to resident cavalrymen. These cavalrymen were free to tax and administer justice within these territories as long as they reported for war when called. j. After the sultans began to reduce the role of the cavalry in favor of the janissary corps, tax farming took the place of the land grant system. Over time, the central Ottoman government was forced to sell tax farming rights permanently for local governors, making them more or less private landowners and further reducing the power of the central Ottoman government. k. The influx of silver into the Ottoman Empire effected the land grant system and effectively ended it, causing cavalrymen to be laid off from armies and become a restive element of the empire l. Increased surtaxes caused internal strife as peasants and religious scholars could not afford them m. Revolts broke out and the Ottoman administration was weakened. The Sultan’s power declined significantly and he remained in his palace while the Janissaries continued to gain influence n. During the Tulip period of the empire, where gala soirees were used to mask the instability of the Empire, the Ottomans were plagued with Janissary revolts such as the one led by Patrona Halil. British Empire Location and ● Lack of resources caused a reliance on colonies’ output (Elizabethan Age) impact of ● Colonies provided raw materials Britain, which refined them into manufactured goods Geography ● Expanded very rapidly: controlled North America, tried to get India, West Indies Military ● Technology allowed their greatness of power/industrial and financial muscle allowed for them to remain in power over their European neighbors ● had most powerful navy in the world: used to protect trade ● muskets and cannons in use (Brown Bess) ● Government controlled campaigns ● their order was to remove hostiles and maintain peace ● Didn’t really want to be in conflict ● Taking over America was easier as they had a technological advancements ● prolonged battles against European rivals due to systematic and financial muscle (helped by the royal navy to keep borders) ● Royal navy protected coasts and intimidated outside forces as they had cannons. ● British didn’t maintain a standing army, but had confidence and professionalism due to education ● Scottish and Irish backed the British army because it needed economic activities ● Fleet was able to delete the Spanish Armada in 1588. Technology ● plantations-agricultural production ● medicine combating diseases, prophylactics and vaccinations ● Precision-made muskets and rifles. machine guns, train locomotives, steam ships (out of time period) ● Isaac Newton was British physicist who theorized Newton’s Three Laws of Force. (Unrelated much?) Economy ● East India Trading Company: China and India and competed with Dutch. cotton, silk, sugar, and opium ● America-Caribbean trade for sugar, Jamestown and took Canada (Quebec/Ontario) ● African slave trade in West Indies. ● Hudson Bay Company traded furs with the indigenous peoples ● Mercantilism: The British government used a royal chartered company, the Royal African Company, to control all of the trade in British territories in Africa. The Atlantic Circuit had th
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