Unit 2 Test Prep.doc

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Arizona State University
Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Co mpareandContrastSocieties example: http://pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/murphyc/web/apworld/review/unit1/cramunit1.pdf Points of DifferenceSilk Road Indian Ocean Trading Network Regions Affiliated ● Ming weren’t able to use the Silk Road because the ● Africa, Middle East, India, South China, Mallaca Mongols still controlled it ● The Ming was forced to use the sea routes (Zheng He) ● Rome, Byzantine Empire, also part of the middle east because the Mongols controlled the Silk Road ● 2000 BCE- Sumerian records indicate regular trade between Mesopotamia, islands of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and the Indus Valley. Goods Traded ● Leaving China: peaches, apricots, cinnamon, ginger, ● Cotton textiles, peppers, food grains, timber, horses, spices silk, porcelain, grape wine, stringed instruments,precious metals, jewels, rare spices iron?, sugar/spice, tea ● Prosperous Muslim cities provided demand for valuable ● Brought to China: alfalfa, grapes, pistachios, walnuts, goods. pomegranates, sesame, coriander, spinach, and other new crops to China ● Jasmine oil, oak galls, sal ammoniac, copper oxides, zinc, precious stones were used by Chinese doctors ● The Silk Road brought many new crops to Mesopotamia such as cotton, sugarcane, rice, citrus, and other plants from India and China Management ● Some sections controlled by one entity trying to contr●l Seasonal monsoon winds facilitated long-distance trade- trade cities/collect taxes. meant sailors could go straight across the ocean instead ● Trade over the Silk Road was definitely lower than in theof sticking to the shore. Mediterranean due to the long distances. ● Cooperative and decentralized ● Rise of the Sassanid Empire in Iran led to walled Iran●anBased on commercial interests rather than political cities that served as military strongholds protecting lonauthorities, thus high tolerance for different religions; distance trade. united by commercial interest Impact ● 431: A council of Bishops called by the Byzantine ● Caused cultural diffusion by marriages of sailors with Empire declared Nestorian Christians heretics because local women they emphasize the humanness of Christ. They were ● Spread of Islam through commercial contacts, persecuted, so many became missionaries on the Silk merchants to port cities and beyond, and syncretism into Road. local culture (e.g. Mansa Musa built Islamic/Qu’ran ● A preacher named Mani created a new religion in schools after pilgrimage to Mecca) Mesopotamia known as Manichaeism, which was the dualist faith of the stuggle between good and evil, and was derived from Zoroastrianism. After he died, this religion continued to spread across the Silk Road. ● Rise of the Sasaanid Empire in Iran led to walled Iranian cities that served as military strongholds protecting long- distance trade ● Prosperous traders (both Turks and Iranians) built stately homes with decorated wall paintings showing people wearing Iranian and Chinese clothing ● Missionary influences exemplified the influences of foreign customs and beliefs on the peoples on the Silk Road; military technology was the opposite, steppe customs went to foreign lands, such as chariots and mountain bowmen. ● The stirrup came from the Kushan people. It’s important. Miscellaneous ● People of the steppes were better suited for long- ● Traders rarely retained political ties with their homeland distance travel than the Chinese ● The culture of Indian Ocean ports were often isolated ● Trading demands that brought the Silk Road into being from the hinterlands. (The hinterlandis the land or district were: Chinese eagerness for Western products and the behind the borders of a coast or river.) organized Parthian end who captured the markets from ● Colonies established by traders were sometimes socially the Seleucids distinctive, but rarely in dependant of local political ● By 100: Greeks could by Chinese silk from Parthian powers. traders, but the caravans that brought them also bought ● The rise of Islam gave it an important boost and sold goods on the way in prosperous Central Asian cities like Samarkand and Bukhara. These cities flourished under the rule of local princes. ● The use of these new crops increased slowly, and they became more important later ● The Sassanids established Zoroastrianism and Christianity as the official state religions, and this politicalization of religion greatly affected the culture of the Silk Road Aztec Inca Location and ● Located at small islands in Lake Texcoco and built two ● Centered in a valley of Cuzco; stretched from Maule Impact of capitols, Tenochtitlan and Tlateloloco. River, Chile to N. Ecuador and Pacific Ocean across Geography ● They were also able to seize additional farming territory Andes to Argentina through these land reclamation projects (construction of● They had to drain swamps, make terraces, and build huge dike, to separate freshwater and saltwater parts of irrigation Lake Texcoco, extension of irrigated fields, areas for chinampas) ● Land was fairly arable, but needed one-fourth of tribute in food to feed population. Military ● Military successes, and fought for war captives. ● Had strong centralized military power under their king ● They also fought for tribute. ● It was a requirement of the king to expand the Inca ● Warfare allowed for territorial conquest (seize land and empire, so when a new ruler took power he usually peasant labor) launched a massive military campaign; legitimatized ● War legitimated rulers’ rule and gave prestige to warrior throne elites if they succeeded. ● Used bronze and copper weapons Technology ● Chinampas were floating islands, allowed them to farm ● They were skilled stone craftsmen, put stone blocks on land that would otherwise be unusable. together with mortar (environmental impact too) Aztecs did not invent them, ● Like the Maya, their priests were concerned with but used them. astronomy and had a calendar similar to the Maya ● Were very skilled weavers of cotton, llama, and alpaca wool ● Were skilled in crafting tools, weapons, and decorations out of copper, bronze, gold, and silver Economy ● Barter system used for trade. ● The economy and trade was overseen by the state Difference ● Extensive tributary system provided over4∕ of the Aztec power and ayllus (local chiefdoms) Food supply food supply ● No merchant class because the government ran the ● Rich array of goods as far as Central America and the majority of the trade (Social too) Southwestern border of North America. ● The Inca got specialized goods through the tributary ● Because there were no draft animals or wheeled system vehicles, only lightweight valuables such as gold, jewel●, Produced own goods through developments in weaving feathered garments, etc. were traded. and metallurgy ● Merchants who controlled long-distance trade became ● Depended on Mit’a (rotational organized labor force) to especially wealthy provide food supply and labor ● The Mit’a was a rotation labor draft that worked the fields, tended to llama and alpaca herds, built and maintained roads, bridges, temples, palaces, and large irrigation and drainage projects, produced textiles and goods. Women and Social ● Accentuated social class divisions; upper class ● Mit’a system organized workers from ayllus (clans) possessed extensive estates while lower classes ● Extreme gap in status between the elite and the received few if any material rewards commoners ● Nobles were polygamous and lived in large two story ● The royal court was removed from the whole of society houses, consumed rich and flavorful diet (with spices, ● Pastoralism practiced; men traded, women weaved protein), while commoners ate limited staples, lived in small dwellings ● Merchants had to be careful about displaying wealth because although they were successful, they did not have privileges of the elite ● War captives, criminals, slaves were sacrificial victims ● Clan members maintained common ritual life, cared for sick and elderly, fought together as military units Culture ● Gods identified with nature, war, agriculture ● King was though to be the descendant of the sun, their ● Used sacrificial rituals as part of the culture to appease primary god the gods. ● To be king had to expand the imperial boundaries ● Religion dominated public life, polygamy. ● The king had to take part in many rituals, feasts, and sacrifices to appease the gods and validate his power Government ● Government earlier used kinship based organization. ● Hereditary chiefs of ayllus carried out administrative and Similarity:monarchy ● Aztecs had kings that legitimated their ascendancy by judicial functions system created elaborate rituals an
More Less

Related notes for GCU 114

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.