Thanksgiving Change Over Time temp.doc

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Cultural Geography
GCU 114
Daniel Hume

Thanksgiving Change Over Time If you got Europe/Middle East last time for CCOT, then you will NOT get the same topic. (This includes the Europe/African monarch topic for Europe people, according to Anderson.) If you feel that you must have the Middle East and Europe sections, then feel free tTHISite in them. DOESN’TAPPLY FOR COMPARE AND CONTRAST (source: Murphy.) (Anderson: overruled, Europe/Africa is not a possible choice, we asked her in class.) Want more info? Look at “Gleaned Info.” Congratulations people, I have successfully deduced that there will not be CCOT for Mesoamerica religion. There is no change whatsoever for any society, its all just one big continuity: they were centered around religion and it ran their lives to the point of insanity.-Roshan PEOPLEIN ANDERSON:It is likely that our essays will be either Africa or China COT, Aztec/Inca compare and contrast, or Mongol Russia/Mongol China Compare and Contrast, so I would advise to FOCUS most of your time on those topics. Mesoamerica is ruled out because Anderson said it would be too difficult of a subject, and Middle East is ruled out because she told us it wouldn’t really cover the time period. Silk Road/Indian Ocean Trade is also not likely because she mentioned that the Silk Road wasn’t in our time period either. Just a thought. (: Response to ^^: Anderson said there would not be Europe/African Monarch. We (both 2nd and 4th) already did Europe... she said we cannot have the same region even if it is the other type of essay. EVERYONE:Mesoamerica is a highly unlikely would be quite evil for the teachers to give that to one of the classes seeing as not much happens in terms of change and/or continuity. Don’t spend too much time on it! (If I’m wrong...sorry :p) ^ Just saying, Mrs. Anderson said not to focus on MesoAmerica when I asked. PEOPLEIN MURPHY: Pray to God or whatever supernatural being may or may not be above. Just a cry for help ): Purple text means I have a problem with it: I’m not sure if this is correct, this needs more elaboration/evidence, etc. Just provide evidence that it actually happened, or provide more evidence, or it just doesn’t fit and I’m wondering why it’s there. China (600-1500) Mesoamerica (600-1500) Africa (1200-1500) (Gradual Shift) Middle Europe East POLITICAL Tang Empire: avoids centralization by Teotihuacan: rapid urban growth: volcanic -Mostly small hunter-gatherer societies LOOK ATLOOK AT STRUCTURES giving power to the local elites, eruptions disrupt agriculture and city PREVIOUPREVIOO gentry, officials, religious elites increase power, forced farmers to Groups of pastoralists S COT US COT BEGINNING establishments; continued Confucian relocate to urban centers and build CHARTS CHARTS examinations (therefore Confucians chinampas, sustaining an urban society -Simple irrigation networks that local had gov’t power) people could manage and maintain elites controlled state bureaucracy, tax Tang princes competing for political collection, and commerce -Agriculture was not labor intensive, so influence enlisted monastic leaders to did not require advanced political pray for them and counsel aristocrats systems to organize labor, ALSO: to support them (and give wealth to geographical/physical barriers (e.g. elites: often of the priestly class, or them), later Buddhism repressed wealthy families Sahara)separate kinships from rivalry no centralized ruler, elite families had Song Empire: Neo-Confucianism, civil decentralized power, some alliances took -Reason: Many different languages and service examinations still used to tesplace and families even used “puppet cultures bureaucrat candidates (whereas in Tang, had hereditary classes, noble kings” lineage, these exams allowed people from any origin for gov’t service, Maya: no political unification, ruled by though wealthy succeeded most), rival kingdoms led by hereditary rulers, gentry families gathered land as struggled only for regional dominance, agriculture had increasing rulers served religious functions (kings productivity (b/c of iron implements communicated with supernatural used in rice cultivation, printed bookresidents, deified royal ancestors), fought on agricultural techniques) to secure captives for religious sacrifice Patrilineal, sometimes traced bilaterally (through female/male lines) MIDDLE Yuan Empire: although Confucianists, Toltecs: created the first conquest state TURN PT: MALI? first expansize + unified Buddhists, Daoists, etc. participated based on military power, expansive african state, very prosperous Depended in gov’t, positions of political influence, all buildings and on well-developed agricultural base, and “Confucians” (hereditary status) not architecture suggest warlike rituals and control of Saharan trade routes as great as elite office positions sacrifice Mali diff than Ghana: 1. Much larger before, concerned with counting than Ghana, Mali controlled core population and collect taxes (Persian, Arab, Uighurs appointed for ruled by two chieftains/kings, but trading area of Niger, gold fields of administrators of taxation and eventually division of responsibility Niger 2. From beginning rulers were weakened Toltec power Muslims who spread Islam through finance), organized China into trade and politics provinces (and had provincial governors) = systematized gov’t control in all parts of China Peaceful spread of Islam= New administrative, legal, and economic limited gov’t posts open to old systems dictated by Islam acquired Chinese elites, gentry pursued things Expansion of commercial contacts sped like commerce (despite lower up commercial contacts agriculturalists to transfer surplus networks of private traders --> tried >pastoral herders) to look for new instruments of credit production to the city, also to expand trade relations (but Teotihuacan wasn’t controlled by these military elites) -slash and burn (swidden agriculure Song: ideas of credit led to interregional credit (flying money, technique) extensive but not intensive redeemed for coinage, managed by families), gov’t issued paper money -local economies based on extensive (but severe inflation), tax farming; still farming (used lots of land through rapid economic growth (land no longer only source of wealth, era of slash and burn, clearing new fields, but did not reuse to cultivate/fertilize) private capitalism, growth of urban and availabilty of other food options middle class (merchants)) (e.g. hunting, plants, fishing, sea navigation to trade for food); REASON- some environments inhibited agricultural societies -Sustained on wild foods, thus no need to trade to get stuff that they don’t have Used dhows in Arabian Sea for trade MIDDLE Yuan: re-emergence of Silk Road use, ISLAM! caravan routes connected China to Increased commercial contact (ex with Europe, cities on caravan routes, others on Grand Canal and coast North African Muslim traders) -Question... when did silk road fall out of use? -Consolidation of Middle East and NA under Muslim rule stimulated exchanges along the routes that crossed the Sahara imperial gov’t issued paper money to ease financial pressure (but failed, unsecured notes), copper coinage stabilized by cutting off trade with Japan corporations (investor groups, behaving as a single commercial/ legal body) handled economic activity (financed caravans, loans to Mongol elites, tax farming) gentry families engaged in urban commerce END Ming: cut off trade from other regions Aztecs: specialized class of merchants Swahili coast to censor technology (gunpowder), that controlled long distance trade Rise of Mogadishu and Great Zimbabwe exception being Yongle’s sponsorship of Zheng He’s voyages (though this merchant expeditions armed and could as important trading centers defend themselves (provided military/ was for tributary states, and trade didpolitical intelligence for Aztec elite) -->Kilwa served as trading port for Great not increase dramatically), restoration Zimbabwe, which had the gold fields to of commercial links with Mid East supply Kilwa’s commercial exports; both (Mongols still controlled much of merchants still feared publicly displaying caravan routes) power, since the elites denied them benefit from merchant activity (there are privileges (jealous of wealth) similar mutually benefitting relationships in other IOTN regions--could make for sold Ming ware (highly prized blue on good global connection; see below) commerce dominated by lightweight white style), lacquered screens, silk, furniture, porcelain products (gold, animal skins, jewels, Long-distance trade grew staple crops, not cash crops cacao), used no money or credit, only barter, facilitated by use of cacao, gold filled quills, cotton cloth as standard units Part of Indian Ocean Trading network of value expansion of Aztec land meant markets of the capitols offered rich array of goods to all of Mesoamerica GLOBAL - Mongol rule causes economic -Indian Ocean Trading Network TRENDS downturn in Central Asia/Russia -Islam upping commer
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