Beginning of settlement
When people first discovered agriculture, they were forced to settle in one place. This was called the
Agriculture meant that leaders accumulated more wealth than anybody else. They had more power
because they were leaders and they had the money, so they formed the upper class. For example, in
ancient Egypt, there was the pyramid-style class structure.
Technology (Creation of Agricultural Tools)
During the Neolithic Era, people started to make metal tools. The new tools were more precise and
longer-lasting, which allowed civilizations to farm more productively. This caused more people to be free
to do other tasks (specialization of labor) and created more stable states.
Gender Roles and Relations: Status of women decreases
As people settled down, the gender roles changed. Before, in hunter-gatherer societies, women provided
most of the food by gathering while men consumed lots of calories for relatively small gains by hunting.
In sedentary societies, the men did most of the farming work while the women stayed at home caring for
5 Trade and commerce
In the beginning their was some early trade between the big empires that started to form during this time.
China opened up a Silk Road in the beginning trading with places like Rome. While Rome became a huge
location for trade as people traded in and out of the Roman Empire. Many of the trade routes where
located on land. While some sea trade ended up being in the Mediterranean Ocean.
The Indian Ocean Trading Network also increased trade during this time. Seafaring traders from east
Africa to Southeast Asia traded with each other along this network.
Throughout this time period, religion has played a part in the peoples lives in how the world worked. It
started with polytheistic religions where people believed in gods for almost everything in the world. the
famous ones were the Greeks who made a god for all the different things in the world. Then followed by
the Romans who just took the Greek religion and renamed everything. Finally there was the rise of the
Monotheistic religions that started as Zionist that was later turned into Judaism. This was a belief in one
god. Judaism was later followed by Christianity that was later the religion of the Romans. 7 Agriculture and Pastoral
Due to the agriculture revolution people started out as farmers. Slowly the world changed from hunters
and gatherers to being actual farmers. This started big societies based around agriculture. Not only that
but the people who were no agriculturist, they were pastoral nomads.
Belief Systems and Ideologies (Beginnings of nearly all belief systems)
This time period saw the starts of nearly all the belief systems used throughout the rest of history. Belief
systems are the most important thing because they decide how people behave. First, most civilizations
practiced some form of polytheism: civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean, traditional Chinese,
and some Buddhists and Daoists. Confucianism developed in China from 400 BCE, and people followed
its social hierarchy, model relationships, and obligations. Daoism preached going with the flow. Legalism
thought everyone was inherently evil. Hinduism was being weird in its weirdness: rebirth, with the goal
of achieving a merge with the Brahma, the creator. Buddhism and Siddhartha Gautama and its Eightfold
Path and goal of nirvana. Judaism. Christianity. SO MANY RELIGIONS.
Period 2 600-1450
1. Labor Systems (Feudalism) (economic structures)
resulted in feudal land ownership
The super-scary Vikings came to Europe and started invading costal and inland cities alike with their
shallow boats. Peasants and people who couldn’t afford security forces got scared. And the lords were in
the right position to offer them protection in exchange for…all of their freedom and nearly all of their
crops. Hence, the feudal system of lords, knights, and serfs was created slowfly. It stagnated Europe, as
most manors were self-sufficient and didn’t need to trade with anybody. The feudal system was broken
down partially because of the Crusades and subsequent explosion of interaction and learning.
2. Arts and Architecture (Renaissance): (interaction of cultures,
The Renaissance was partially caused by the Crusades, which brought Europe out of the feudal system
and back into global trade networks. This led to a flood of Arabic knowledge of Greek and Roman works
into Europe, and people got interested (read: obsessed) with the past and past knowledge.
1. Arts and Architecture (Oral History/Architecture):
In Africa, histories and stories were passed down orally instead of written down, via dramatic
performances with masks and stuff. Also, early Sub-Saharan African cultures were also known for their
sculptures, made out of bronze and pottery. An example of this is the Benin culture, who mastered a
bronze sculpting technique, in which they used the lost-wax method.
2. Religion: Many African rulers converted to the new religion and centralized states began to form with the spread of Islam. The primary agents of trade, the Berbers of the Sahara, became
Muslims, although they retained their identities and tribal loyalties. As a result, Islam mixed with native
cultures to create a synthesis that took different forms in different places in Africa. This gradual,
nonviolent spread of Islam was very conducive to trade, especially since people south of the Sahara had
gold. Politically, the conversion to Islam enabled good trade relations with Arab states to the north. It also
created a group of educated scholars who acted as public servants.
1. Labor Systems: The good mita system and stuff
The Aztecs and Incas were similar in that they used human labor (not animal labor) to expand and sustain
their huge American empires. The Incas expected peasants to give a part of their harvest to support the
ruling class and to contribute to a famine relief fund. One of the two cultures (probably Inca) had the mita
system, where people contributed their time to work on community projects like dams and irrigation.
(This showed the rulers had the ability to organize people so that they could od productive stuff.)
2. Trade and Commerce
The Aztecs built a far-flung empire through conquest, though the conquered lands generally governed
themselves. Roads were built connecting the empire, thus making trade easier. They mostly traded
lightweight and expensive goods, such as precious minerals and gems (?). All trade items had to be
carried by human messengers. The Inca had a really good road network. It was sort of like the Romans’
1. Trade and Commerce
During the era of the Mongols, trade and commerce increased in East Asia. The mongols came in and
took over the place and set up a new goverment. Then to try to increase the trade within the area they
started to open the silk road back up. So the Silk Road opened up bringing new trade back up to China.
The Mongols helped this. Then there is Zheng He’s travels that opened up sea trade as well in China in
the Indian Ocean.
The Economic revolution led to Chinese hegemony started in the Tang dynasty and became more
significant during Song rule. There was increasing agricultural production with the cultivation of rice.
Agricultural techniques improved as well, with the use of the heavy iron plow in the north and water
buffaloes in the south. The Tang also organized extensive irrigation systems, so that agricultural
production was able to move outward from the rivers. The improvement of agricultural resulted in
increasing population and urbanization.
1. Religion (Islam): During this time Muhammad started to spread his new religion of Islam. This started to spread throughout
the people of the Middle East who were polytheistic and idol worshipers.
2. Trade and Commerce (Crusades)
The arrival of Europeans in Islamic lands spread goods and ideas between the two, such as the spread of
salt, knowledge, pasta, paper, sugar, and colored glass from the Arabic world to Europe.
Period 3 1450-1750
1. Beliefs and Ideologies
During this time new ideas started to flow into Europe. This was caused by the Scientific Revolution and
the Age of Enlightenment's. Thinkers like Desecrates, Locke, Montague, and many more were going with
new ideas against the government and the way of thinking. They were bringing ideas of how they should
overthrow bad leaders and parliamentary systems. Not only that but in Eruope new ideas like scientific
ideas started to flow in creating atheists as well.
2. Science and Technology
Due to trade and sea travel new technology came about to try to connect the whole entire world. This was
the start of the Maritime revolution when the people of Euopre built better technology to try to get to
more places better then the rest of the world. Due to technologies like the rudder and the Lateen Sail
people were able to travel to Africa, India, and Americas with ship. Opening a new age of connecting the
1. Trade and Commerce
-Gold coast -started to trade with European countries such as Portugal
-Became part of triangular trade with Europe and the Americas
-Reliance on agrarian economy
2. Labor Systems
-Many slaves sent to North America, Latin America, Middle East and Europe
- Taken as prisoners of war or kidnapped
-Cause polygamy because mostly males were taken
1. Labor Systems
- slave labor for plantations
-death of natives, harsh treatment
-switch from Native to African labor
2. Racial and Ethnic construction
- different ethnic groups make up the population - creoles, slaves, mezitos etc
1. Political structures and forms of governance
-Manchu minority ruling Chinese majority
-Kept civil service exams
2. Trade and Commerce:
During this time Japan decided to shut themselves out from the rest of the world. They were
afraid of western influence corrupting their system which led them to shut themselves out. This
shut down isolated them from the rest of the world and only traded with other Asian countries
and the Dutch traders.
The big empire that appeared during this time was the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans rose to power with
the leader being the Sultanate. They soon started to
- Formation of the Ottoman Empire
- Primarily a land based Empire
- Land Grant System
- Jannisary in power, rule is hereditary
2. Racial and Ethnic Constructions
-composes of many different ethnic cultures within the Empire
-religious tolerance ede3
Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan was a Muslim who invaded India and defeated the Delhi Sultanate,
effectively establishing the Mughal Empire, which was very unified. With the leadership of Akbar,
religious tolerance became big, but it was eventually ended. It gradually grew weaker and weaker as
more and more Europeans arrived.
Europe 1. Family and Kinship (Industrial Family)
During the time of the Industrial Revolution the family life of the people in Europe started to break apart.
The people poorer people had to start working in the factories as people migrated to urban areas.
Everyone went to work in the factories. Women, men, and even children went to work just for that extra
money. This caused the family life to break apart and people having an Industrial Family. A family is that
is never there.
2. Revolts and Revolution: (French Revolution)
After the Revolutionary War in America, the French people were starting their own revolution. Due to the
social hierarchy of France, the poor people wanted to rise up against their king. This lead to a revolution
that overthrew their king leading to a period of anarchy and a semblence of a republic in that time. People
were killing any leader that came in place. This finally ended with the rise of Napoleon.
1. Trade and Commerce: