EXW 315 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Coronary Artery Disease, Bone Density, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
Course
ASU
EXW 315
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 14 Links to chronic disease
Epidemiology
The study of the distribution and determinants of health states and the use of this information in the
control of disease.
Used in several ways
To establish cause
To trace the natural history of a disease
To describe the health status of populations
To evaluate an intervention
Infectious vs. degenerative (313)
Infectious diseasesUnder control with antibiotics, other drugs, and immunizations)
Examples: tuberculosis, pneumonia
Degenerative diseasesReceive more emphasis in the last decades because of increased death rate
Examples: heart disease, cancer, diabetes
Web of causation (314)
Difficult to establish the cause of chronic diseases
Cardiovascular disease for example
Complex involvement of factors
Genetic
Environmental
Behavioral
Major risk factor categories (313)
Inherited/Biological (Immutable risk)
Age (increased)
Gender (male)
Race/Ethnicity (family history)
Genes (which ones???)
Environmental
Physical (air (pollution; exposure to tobacco smoke), water, infastructrue)
Socioeconomical (income, housing, employment, status, education)
Family (divorce, death of loved one, children leaving)
Behavioral
Smoking, Poor nutrition
Drinking alcohol, substance abuse
Inactivity
Overuse of medication
Fast driving, no seat belt
(dangerous behaviors)
Pressure to succeed
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (314)
Associated with atherosclerosis
Thickening of the inner lining of arteries
Contributor to heart attack and stroke death
Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death in the U.S.
Associated with risk factors
Each risk factor magnifies the risk of CHD
Eliminating a risk factor causes a disproportionate reduction in risk
CHD risk factors (314)
PrimaryIncreases risk of CHD in and of itself
Can’t be changed Nonmodifiable
Heredity
Male sex
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Increasing age
Can be changed (modifiable)
Cigarette smoking
High serum cholesterol
High blood pressure
Physical inactivity
Diabetes (recently
Obesity
Secondary risk if other factors are present
Stress Poor nutrition Peer pressure
Physical inactivity as a risk factor (316)
Similar to other risk factors
Smoking
High cholesterol
High blood pressure
High population attributable risk
Percentage of population at risk
Due to large number of inactive individuals
59% of US population at risk due to physical inactivity
Fitness and all-cause mortality
Atherosclerosis (317) (slide 18)
Caused by inflammation in the inner lining of arteries
Response to tissue injury
Involves recruitment of leukocytes
Development of lipid and fibrous plaque in lumen
Narrowing of coronary artery
Reduction of blood flow
Plaque rupture and clot formation
Cause of most heart attacks
Process (318)
Activated endothelium attracts monocytes
Mature into macrophages
Macrophages scavenge LDL-cholesterol
Develop into foam cells and fatty streak
Size of plaque continues to increase
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Document Summary

Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of health states and the use of this information in the control of disease, used in several ways. To trace the natural history of a disease. To describe the health status of populations. Infectious diseases under control with antibiotics, other drugs, and immunizations) Degenerative diseases receive more emphasis in the last decades because of increased death rate. Web of causation (314: difficult to establish the cause of chronic diseases. Physical (air (pollution; exposure to tobacco smoke), water, infastructrue) Family (divorce, death of loved one, children leaving: behavioral. Fast driving, no seat belt (dangerous behaviors) Cardiovascular disease (cvd) (314: associated with atherosclerosis. Thickening of the inner lining of arteries. Contributor to heart attack and stroke death. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death in the u. s. Each risk factor magnifies the risk of chd. Eliminating a risk factor causes a disproportionate reduction in risk.

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