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Physical Geography
GPH 111
Robert Balling

GPH 111 Final Exam Study Guide Does anyone have any of the questions and answers that he gave out on random lecture days? 1. The atmosphere stability and ocean stability- ocean is thermally stable. atmosphere is thermally unstable, Cold water stabilizes the atmosphere 2. Ocean currents Cold ocean currents produce the driest deserts 3. Salty, ocean Ocean is warm as you go to the surface, saltwater allows you to float, the ocean is not the same level of saltiness everywhere, most salty at surface (particularly salty in Atlantic) 4. Coriolis effect, ocean The coriolis effect bends the ocean into the Northern Hemisphere -The coriolis effect influences the movement of ocean currents 5. Upwelling ( water coming up to surface)- occurs where water flows offshore thereby drawing cold water to the surface 6. Ocean currents (COLD)- stabilize the atmosphere (and creates driest deserts) while warm ocean currents destabilize the atmosphere (and produces high levels of rain). 7. Neap tides and Spring tides -Neap Tides - Tides not that low, or tides not that high (1st or 3rd quarter moons) -Spring Tides - Tides are really low, or really high (moon is fully illuminated during spring tides, full moon or new moon) 8. Ocean currents 9. Upwelling (occurring where water comes up flowing , off flowing) -When upwelling occurs, warm water is pushed away from the coast by strong trade winds allowing cold water to come up to the surface. 10. El nino- warm water in the tropical Pacific that has strong teleconnections with climate in North America; coincides w/ a reversal of the normal walker circulation, occurs every 3-7 years. El Nino temperature rose during 1998 and fell down just as quickly when it ended. 11. Spring tides neap tides- ● Spring tides- large daily tidal variations caused by the Moon and Sun being aligned ● Neap tides- have low daily tidal variations because the Moon and Sun are at right angles with respect to the Earth. 12. Convective currents- cause sea-floor spreading and are seen as mountainous features beneath the sea. Convective currents can arrive anywhere and can shift. 13. Continents being less dense than sea floor- Continents are made up of silica and aluminum (Sial) while the ocean bottom is silica and magnesium (Sima) 14. Rocky mtns - They are largely faulted 15. Rocky mtns- 16. Spreading of the ocean floor-youngest rocks near sea floor spreading 17. Anticlines- are initially ridge-like features with downward slope away from the axis 18. Synclines- are initially trough-like features with upward slope away from the axis (Folded landscapes) 19. Mother, and father… 20. Age of the crust (where old and young) Age of rocks gets younger as you get closer to mid atlantic ridge. The OLDEST rocks are farthest away from the sea floor spreading point. 21. Plate boundaries Discovered that ocean bottom was much more dense, and that continents are actually floating. The collision of plates created mountains. There are ways to date fossils in order to see where continents were once together. 22. Earthquakes- occur when a sudden break occurs in layers of stress. The epicenter is located at the point of the fracture (Lots of plate friction) 23. Hawaii The Mauna Loa in Hawaii is a shield volcano (occur where lava flows are frequent. Formed from hotspot. Multiple volcanos with plates moving. The islands cross the pacific and erode. The plate moves, the hotspot doesn’t. There’s a new volcano growing off the coast of the big island. 24. Volcanoes- occur where melting of rocks is taking place within the crust. 25. Volcanoes Composite Volcano = Most common type (lava and cinder ash)- crater at the summit which contains a central vent or a clustered group of vents. Lavas either flow through breaks in the crater wall or issue from fissures on the flanks of the cone. Lava, solidified within the fissures, forms dikes that act as ribs which greatly strengthen the cone. -Lava Domes are explosive volcanoes like Mt. St. Helens - Dike: rounded feature of volcanic eruption that is found in cracks -One such composite volcano is Mt Fuji -A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are spread out and don’t hold to a side. 26. Rock types- slate- metamorphic form of shale 27. You are driving alone and notice a road cut layered strata… 28. Which of the following matched correctly (rock types?) 29. Basalt- crystals didn't have time to form. extrusive. common extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or mon 30. Rock types- marble- metamorphic form of limestone slate- form of shale Gneiss-form of granite 31. Lithification- The processes by which loose sediment is hardened to rock, forms sedimentary rocks that are layered and cover much of the continents. EX: shale, sandstone, coal and limestone 32. Rock types- pummus- extrusive igneous rock from volcanoes 33. Rock types - metamorphic- created by heat pressure altering pre-existing rocks (marble from limestone, quartzite from sandstone, slate from shale, gneiss from granite) 34. Volcanoes 35. Rock types- shale-sedimentary rock 36. Rock types- Igneous rocks are formed as molten rocks crystallize. Extrusive rocks form near the surface, cool quickly, and create small crystals (basalt, pumice). Intrusive igneous rocks cool slowly and form large crystals (granite). 37. Stream, water- - the velocity of streams determines whether erosion or deposition is occurring - straight flowing stream - velocity is greatest in the middle near the surface - velocity in
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