GPH 111 Final Exam Study Guide
Does anyone have any of the questions and answers that he gave out on
random lecture days?
1. The atmosphere stability and ocean stability- ocean is thermally stable.
atmosphere is thermally unstable, Cold water stabilizes the atmosphere
2. Ocean currents Cold ocean currents produce the driest deserts
3. Salty, ocean Ocean is warm as you go to the surface, saltwater allows you to
float, the ocean is not the same level of saltiness everywhere, most salty at
surface (particularly salty in Atlantic)
4. Coriolis effect, ocean The coriolis effect bends the ocean into the Northern
-The coriolis effect influences the movement of ocean currents
5. Upwelling ( water coming up to surface)- occurs where water flows offshore
thereby drawing cold water to the surface
6. Ocean currents (COLD)- stabilize the atmosphere (and creates driest
deserts) while warm ocean currents destabilize the atmosphere (and produces
high levels of rain).
7. Neap tides and Spring tides -Neap Tides - Tides not that low, or tides not that high (1st or 3rd quarter
-Spring Tides - Tides are really low, or really high (moon is fully illuminated
during spring tides, full moon or new moon)
8. Ocean currents
9. Upwelling (occurring where water comes up flowing , off flowing)
-When upwelling occurs, warm water is pushed away from the coast by strong
trade winds allowing cold water to come up to the surface.
10. El nino- warm water in the tropical Pacific that has strong teleconnections
with climate in North America; coincides w/ a reversal of the normal walker
circulation, occurs every 3-7 years. El Nino temperature rose during 1998 and fell
down just as quickly when it ended.
11. Spring tides neap tides-
● Spring tides- large daily tidal variations caused by the Moon and Sun being
● Neap tides- have low daily tidal variations because the Moon and Sun are
at right angles with respect to the Earth.
12. Convective currents- cause sea-floor spreading and are seen as
mountainous features beneath the sea. Convective currents can arrive anywhere
and can shift.
13. Continents being less dense than sea floor- Continents are made up of
silica and aluminum (Sial) while the ocean bottom is silica and magnesium
14. Rocky mtns - They are largely faulted
15. Rocky mtns-
16. Spreading of the ocean floor-youngest rocks near sea floor spreading
17. Anticlines- are initially ridge-like features with downward slope away from
18. Synclines- are initially trough-like features with upward slope away from
the axis (Folded landscapes) 19. Mother, and father…
20. Age of the crust (where old and young) Age of rocks gets younger as
you get closer to mid atlantic ridge. The OLDEST rocks are farthest away from
the sea floor spreading point.
21. Plate boundaries Discovered that ocean bottom was much more dense,
and that continents are actually floating. The collision of plates created
mountains. There are ways to date fossils in order to see where continents were
22. Earthquakes- occur when a sudden break occurs in layers of stress. The
epicenter is located at the point of the fracture (Lots of plate friction)
23. Hawaii The Mauna Loa in Hawaii is a shield volcano (occur where lava
flows are frequent. Formed from hotspot. Multiple volcanos with plates moving.
The islands cross the pacific and erode. The plate moves, the hotspot doesn’t.
There’s a new volcano growing off the coast of the big island.
24. Volcanoes- occur where melting of rocks is taking place within the crust.
25. Volcanoes Composite Volcano = Most common type (lava and cinder ash)-
crater at the summit which contains a central vent or a clustered group of vents.
Lavas either flow through breaks in the crater wall or issue from fissures on the
flanks of the cone. Lava, solidified within the fissures, forms dikes that act as ribs
which greatly strengthen the cone.
-Lava Domes are explosive volcanoes like Mt. St. Helens
- Dike: rounded feature of volcanic eruption that is found in cracks
-One such composite volcano is Mt Fuji
-A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid
lava flows. They are spread out and don’t hold to a side.
26. Rock types- slate- metamorphic form of shale
27. You are driving alone and notice a road cut layered strata… 28. Which of the following matched correctly (rock types?)
29. Basalt- crystals didn't have time to form. extrusive. common extrusive igneous
rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface
of a planet or mon
30. Rock types- marble- metamorphic form of limestone
slate- form of shale
Gneiss-form of granite
31. Lithification- The processes by which loose sediment is hardened to rock,
forms sedimentary rocks that are layered and cover much of the continents. EX:
shale, sandstone, coal and limestone
32. Rock types- pummus- extrusive igneous rock from volcanoes
33. Rock types - metamorphic- created by heat pressure altering pre-existing
rocks (marble from limestone, quartzite from sandstone, slate from shale, gneiss
35. Rock types- shale-sedimentary rock
36. Rock types- Igneous rocks are formed as molten rocks crystallize. Extrusive rocks form
near the surface, cool quickly, and create small crystals (basalt, pumice). Intrusive igneous
rocks cool slowly and form large crystals (granite).
37. Stream, water-
- the velocity of streams determines whether erosion or deposition is occurring
- straight flowing stream - velocity is greatest in the middle near the surface
- velocity in