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ANTH 1000

ANTHROPOLOGY 9/2/2013 6:03:00 PM Anthropology is the study of human-kind and changes over time.  Types of Anthropology: o Cultural  Like sociology; looks at people (marriage, family, kinship).  Understanding traditional ways of life so we can understand ours  “Grammar of proper experience”  ex. Shaking hands o Linguistics  Looks at languages  Records and compares languages to one another to determine similarities and differences o Physical  Looks at humans as both biological and cultural beings  How heritage is influenced by our environment  Study of “human evolution”  Disease and its spreading  Only field with military occupation position  Forensic anthropology: “legal” anthropology  Find the manner and means of death. o Archaeology  Like cultural, but the subjects are dead and have been dead for a long time  Study a wide range of cultures and time periods o Specialty fields  Historical, medical, religions, etc.  LOOK FOR PATTERNS! RECOGNIZE AND EXPLAIN! MODELS: EVOLUTION AND CULTURE  EVOLUTION: things change o “There is irreversible change” o Biological or cultural study  Similar but not the same SCIENCE: “S” or “s”  Hard (“S”) or soft (“s”) science o Hard meaning based on only facts o Soft meaning not tested and based on experience and tests. The information is not explicit.  Pseudoscience: “fake science” o TV is filled with incidents of this. o Ex. History channel showing aliens and unrealistic things. o Not separating facts from wishes. “Science plays by the rules.”  Statistics can be misused o Unintentionally or purposely  Laws of science do NOT change o Ex. gravity  Laws can be identified o If there is an anomaly in the results, then you most likely did something wrong. o HYPOTHESIS: testable statement based on observations  Occam’s Razor: “multiplicity ought not to be positive” o K.I.S.S: Keep It Simple Stupid o Often the simplest is easier to test and is more correct.  CULTURE IS: o Grammar for proper behavior o Shared (but not equally) o Learned (ex. Education in school, parents, experiences, peers) o Based on symbols and determine behavior o Integrated/Holistic (parts fit together) Searching for understanding  The human race could never reach the same place again if we had to start over again.  Search for PATTERNS  Searching for patterns is part of the working of science o Multiple tests to be RIGHT o Only takes one bad test to be proven WRONG WHY DO WE USE SCIENCE IN ANTHROPOLOGY?  To support hypotheses  Physical anthropology: biological, concept of evolution. o “change over time” o Similar to Biological Anthropology o Who are we? Who are our relatives?  Genetically, we can trace everyone back to Africa  Chimps are our closest living species  Mimicking/copying o Biology and culture are important  Taxonomy: science of naming o Classification of living things o Each category represents a more exclusive group. 1. Kingdom: Animal 2. Class: Mammal 3. Order: Primates 4. Suborder: Prosimians (pre monkey); Anthropoids (human) 5. Superfamily: Hominoid; Old/New World Monkeys 6. Family: Hominid a. Why are we human? What differentiates us? What makes us human? 7. Genus: Homo; Australopithecus 8. Species: Sapiens (wise), etc. 9. Subspecies: Homo sapiens sapiens SMALL AND GREAT APES vs. HUMANS  Multiple similarities and differences, some are more important than others. o Posture, internal organs, body chemistry, etc.  Arboreal vs. terrestrial  Brachiating vs. non brachiating  Prehensile vs. semi-prehensile  Sexual dimorphism o Seen in apes and humans  Sagittal (top of the head) and nuchal (attaches the back of the skull to the rest of the body) crest o Nuchal allows for holding the head up  There is a difference in DEGREE, not KIND. o Ex. Bipedalism, tails, etc.  So what makes us human? o Our minds, the
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