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Anthropology Exam 1 Key Terms.docx

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ANTH 1000

Anthropology Exam 1 Key Terms 9/23/2013 11:56:00 AM Chapter 1: 1. Anthropology: the holistic study of humankind that searches for interrelationships among all the parts of its subject. a. Seeks to understand how all the aspects of our species are related. 2. Hutterites: a Christian religious sect founded in Moravia in 1528 by people from southern Germany and Austria. a. Shunned infant baptism b. Advocated church free from state c. Considered Anabaptists d. Similar to Amish people. e. Nonconformity in their belief in communal living and ownership f. Genetically isolated population that rarely has any new genes introduced and mostly only breeds with those in their own colony. g. Average family has 10 children 3. Artifact: any object that has been consciously manufactured 4. Biocultural Perspective: focusing on the interaction of Biology and Culture 5. Cultural relativity: studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural values. Chapter 2: 1. Induction: the process of developing a general explanation from specific observations a. First, information must be gathered, observed, and analyzed. i. Data must be real and tangible ii. A hypothesis must be built on existing data b. Second, the hypothesis must be testable using new data, combinations, and interpretations of the data. 2. Deduction: suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true. a. Look for repetition, universality, explanation for exceptions, and new data. 3. Theory: a general idea that explain a large set of factual patterns. a. A theory is made up of interacting and well-supported hypotheses b. Coordinates, explains, and interprets a wide range of factual patterns i. Ex. Theory of gravity, relativity, and evolution 4. Indigenous: native, refers to a group of people with a long history in a particular area. 5. Pseudoscience: Scientific ideas that are taken on faith without evidence to support them or are shown false when tested. a. Ex. Phrenology Chapter 3: 1. Evolution: the idea that species change over time and have common ancestry 2. Fossils: Remains of past life-forms a. Previously fossils were believed to be the remains of deformed individuals b. Law of super-positioning: Strata represents a series of events, lower levels of dirt being older than the higher layers 3. 9/23/2013 11:56:00 AM Study words for 1st exam: Acheulian tools: Most famous was the hand axe (symmetrical, edged, pointed, and bifacial). These were mostly made of stone. Allele: a specific gene that represents a trait Anthropology: Holistic study of humankind and the changes they go through Arboreal: lives in trees Artifact: a material human made object that represents a previous era of life Artificial selection: Australopithecus: first definite hominoid. Robust and gracile  Bosei: robust, From East Africa Bergmens and Allens rules: Bergman’s is you have a fatter body in cold and thinner in the heat. Allen’s is animals in colder have short limbs and in hotter have long. Bipedal: walks on two feet C. Darwin: natural selection Cephalic index: differen
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