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HIST 1010
John Stephens

Ming Dynasty  14 through 15 century  Chinese Imperial Dynasty  Followed the Yuan Dynasty  In China Yongle Emperor  Third emperor of the Ming Dynasty  Sent lots of goods to the Japanese to make a better relationship  Called himself a “great emperor”  Funded Zheng He’s expeditions  Made everyone in his palace be castrated  Died in 1424 Zheng He  Commander of massive fleet  Went to places with the ships full of Chinese treasure o Gave it out to the local leadership  Had troops of around 28,000 on board  They rarely engaged in military action, but had cannons anyways  Boats the size of football fields  Very close to the Yongle Emperor  Was a Muslim from Mongol descent Mamluks  Post 1433 – Mamluks and Gujarati  Turkish Slaves o Purchased by caliphs o Established them as a slave army  Mamluks dominate trade between Indian ocean and Mediterranean  Biannual voyages, based on seasonal winds  Little desire for exploration Genoa and Venice  2 cities that proved instrumental in helping Portugal break theAtlantic Barrier  Decided to invest in looking west to break theAtlantic Barrier Henry the Navigator  Third in line for King of Portugal  Led an attack on Cueta o Because of this he devoted the rest of his life to exploration  His motives for exploration were: o Converting Africans to Christianity o Making contact with Christian rulers inAfrica o Launching joint crusades with them against the Ottomans  Wished to discover new places in hopes that new contacts would be profitable Vasco da Gama  From Portugal  Sails around the tip of Africa  Reached Calicut Christopher Columbus  From Genoa  Wanted to find India and China  Pitched idea to Portugeuse first and they denied him  Then goes to Spanish  Columbus accidentally gives the Spanish the edge in theAmericas  Wanted to find a western route toAsia  1492 Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue  Finds Canary Islands, the current and wind helps him  CrossesAtlantic in 33 days  Thinks that he is in the Indies  Geographers figure out that he found a new landmass, notAsia  Portuguese feel threatened so they create the Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Tordesillas  Between the Spanish and the Portuguese after Columbus found the new land  Splits the world in two  Everything to the east is for the Portuguese and everything to the west is for the Spanish  Make this treaty because they do not want to fight with the Spanish Hernán Cortés  1519, Cortes lands on eastern coast of Mexico  Has steel weapons, horses, guns and diseases (some they didn’t even know they had)  He receives Dona Marina who speaks Mayan and Spanish to communicate  There to conquer  Finds out about theAztec Empire  TheAztecs are on an island in the middle of a lake o 250,000 people o Nothing like in Europeroads, canals, market places, pyramids  Moctezuma hears Cortes is coming and meets him outside the city o Invites him to stay at the palace o Moctezuma gives them things that they had never had before  Cortes kidnaps Moctezuma and holds him for ransom  However Cortes hears that the Spanish are going to stop his explorations because he burned his ships o Returns to Spain and kills the Spaniards against him, as well as bringing back allies o Allies do not like theAztecs  Eventually Cortes wins because of his: o Military advantages o Dona Marina o Disease (biological warfare)  Small pox  Spanish used infrastructure to conquer them Malinalli (Dona Marina) Helped Cortes Knew Mayan and Spanish Acted as translator between Cortes and natives Led Cortes to find out about theAztec Empire One of the reasons was able to establish a New Spain Moctezuma II King of theAztecs Resided on the island of Tenochtitlan Hears that Cortes is coming and meets him outside the city Invited the Spanish to stay with him in the Palace Moctezuma wanted to gage the Spanish Kidnapped and held for ransom by Cortes Killed after battle with Cortes died in an unknown Francisco Pizarro  Inca empire emerges inAndes in the 15 century  Pizarro launches his campaign in 1531-1532  Diseases not only killed people, they also disrupted economic and social systems in the Incan empire and dynastic quarrels—enabled Pizarro to conquer 200 men  Pizarro arranged to meet with the Incan emperorAtahualpa  Atahualpa had won the south in a civil war  Pizarro enters into war withAtahualpa  Fires cannon into 40,000 LIGHTLYARMED soldiers to create confusion  And then they cut them down  Pizarro emperor and holds him hostage  Incans pay 13,800 wage of gold  Spanish kill him anyways  With the emperor’s death, and the civil war, the Incans were weak which led the Spanish to conquer them easily Columbian Exchange The result was an exchange of goods, organisms, ideas and diseases  Europe had a long history of livestock Americas has a long history of fruits and veggies The Columbian Exchange fundamentally altered the ecological and cultural trajectories of the world o Ideas of trading ideas, foods, animals etc o Giving people things they didn’t have before Quininetreatment for malaria (old world disease) was found in theAmericas Americas spread useful crops to Eurasia o Corn and potatoes which were rich in carbs (energy) o Largely ended the famine in Europe o Chinaleading producer of sweet potatoes in 2004 Africa also saw population growth o This growth fueled the slave trade o The number of slaves taken fromAfrica should have resulted in a demographic collapse but did not Diseases spread helped the Europeans conquerAmerica Estimated the Europeans killed as many as 90% ofAmerican Indians with disease Diseases created much of the empty land the Europeans eventually settled in Europeans spread livestock, cash crops, and people to the New World o Sugar, coffee, rice and cotton o Cattle, sheep, and horses o Slave trade forcibly brought millions of people to work in cash crop agriculture Impact of livestock on the landscape was another significant impact of the exchange The New World also had: o Silver and Gold which expanded the money available to Europeans o Enabled them to grow their internal European economy o Land o Europe faced a shortfall with agriculture land they could use o Provided a population relief valve if their cities got overcrowded o Gave Christian missionaries a new place to evangelize Exchange that happened between Europeans andAmericans benefited the Europeans the most Cultural Exchanges created an entirely new LatinAmerica Castas Caste System Mulattos and Mestizos These are actual people who are the products of interracial marriage Spaniards created the caste system Roots of what we think of as modern racism Caste system based on ideas of racial identity Don Francisco Espinoza  Challenges the whole casta system to marry a woman Ferdinand Magellan  Magellan thinks that SouthAmerica isn’t as large as it is  He goes to Portuguese and they deny him because they are making a large amount of money trading around the Indian Ocean  Magellan then goes to Spain to King Charles the V  King does not think he has much to lose so he gives him crew of 250 men and 5 ships  They set sail in 1519  Get to coast of the SouthAmerica and they refuel themselves, replenish food etc  Eventually make it around SouthAmerica in 7 weeks  Straits of Magellanreally difficult to navigate  On the ocean for months, everyone is dying, they don’t believe in him anymore  Stop in Philippines, Magellan gets into a local dispute and he dies  Crew continues on without him and they finally reach the Spice Islands  And then they continue back onto Spain, it took 3 years, and half the crew is dead1522  They are the first people to successfully circumnavigate the globe Andrés de Urdaneta Philip the II wants to find a practical to the Spice Islands Hires heAndres de Urdaneta to find the efficient route: o Sails to Philippines, then goes upward, and goes 11,000 miles o 4 months later, he lands in the Port ofAcapulco in Mexico o Found a way to successfully connect Spanish possessions in theAmericas toAsia The 11,000 miles was longest open navigation in history Started this in 1564  Philips the II begins to establish cities in the Philippines 1571takes over Manila Because of Urdaneta’s expeditions, there is a connection between theAmericas and the Philippines which are both Spanish possessions Best friends with Philip the II Manila Galleon  Loaded the ships with silver  Sailed across the Pacific to Manila  The silver spread throughoutAsia  The Chinese meet them at Manila and want the silver o Because the Chinese did not have a source of natural silver  Merchants go to China to sell the silver  Trade silver for goodies  Chinese have silk  Spanish cannot grow silk, obviously China can Foods like sweet potatoes and others from theAmericas get taken into Europe through Manila Manila ensures that the Columbian Exchange is not only anAtlantic phenomenon but a Pacific one as well Potosí City in Peru Near theAndes Mountains In 1545, there is a silver strike Concentrated in one mine Between 1550-1560, this one mine is going to provide half the world’s silver Silver Mine Need people to dig for this silver Peruvians already had created a work tribute to the Incan EmpireMita Force the indigenous populations to dig for the silver Diseasesthousands die because this is brutal work o But this is good for Philip the II because he gets a lot of silver MitaSpanish makes every 1 in 7 men provide 3-4 months of labor in the mines Chino Asians Called this by the Spanish Came because they were being exploited at home Wanted a better life in theAmericas Sailors, servants, and slavesInAmericas Life still not great for them there Crews on the Galleons are Chino Go to Acapulco Bay and stay to try to integrate them Don’t fit into the casta system already set up James I/VI King of Scotland, England, Ireland, and Wales 6 James of Scotland, 1 king in England to be called James Gets power because Elizabeth finally dies in 1603 and James is her closest relative Elizabeth was known as the “Virgin Queen” James I helps out the English when the Dutch beats up on England for trading He writes them a treaty, saying that the Dutch have control over the trading branch idea, but the English can trade and use the same port towns as the Dutch Chartered the Virginia Company in 1606 Amboyna Massacre Execution of 20 men in 1623 onAmbon Island 10 of the men were in service of the British East India Company Dutch were nervous that there were many British and Japanese mercenaries Capture them all and torture them No one talks, everyone dies Present day Indonesia Suspicion led to their beheading in the town square And their bodies are left to be impaled Virginia Company  April 10, 1606; James the I charters the Virginia Company o AJoint Stock Company  People around Britain bought pieces of the company to provide capital for the project  Land in 1607 with dreams of being as wealthy as the Spanish  Didn’t have the knowhow on how to survive in Jamestown because it is a “wilderness”  Almost immediately everyone is starving and Jamestown is failing  Powhatan Indians come and save them with provisions and give them knowledge on how to survive  Jamestown makes an example for other colonies to follow  Begin to acquire land and settle the region Powhatan Confederacy  Acouple years later, we go to war with the Powhatan Confederacy o Anglo-Powhatan Wars o Brutality is committed by both sides o English eventually victorious Tobacco  Around 1620, they find tobacco, originally in theAmericas to find precious metals (i.e. silver and gold)  High demand for tobaccohigh production of it was necessary  Indentured servants were first turned to to help crop the tobacco o Wealthy people paid for Scottish, Welch, and Irish to come o Work for 7-8 years o And if they sur
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