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HIST 1010
John Stephens

World History 1 Exam 4 I. Asia A. The Ming and Zheng He B. Mamluks and Gujarati Pre­Notes:  Flag ships were massive  Football field long   Chinese  Zheng He’s expedition was able to sail 12,000 miles A. 1. The Ming Dynasty and the Yongle Emperor 2. 1405­1433: Seven Massive Expeditions 3. Zheng He­ Muslim Eunuch 4. 1424­ Yongle Emperor Dies 5. Zheng He is Outsider Among Confucian Elite  Yongle Emperor sent lots of goods to Japanese to try to cultivate their relationship  Puffed up his chest to say he was a great emperor  Zheng He’s expeditions were funded by the emperor  They went to all these places with the ship full of the Chinese treasure o Would give it out to all the local leadership o Had troops of around 28,000 on board o Had cannons etc o Rarely engaged in military action  If they did they did it for the locals   Power play:  o Scared of these 400 ft long ships when you see it coming in (entire fleet) o But when they landed, they gave our treasure o Demonstration of power o Showed how benevolent they were  Begin to cultivate relationships with all the locals   Leader of all these expeditions was Zheng He   He was a Muslim (from Mongol descendant)  He had made his hajj to Mecca  He was also a eunuch  o Basically needed to have their privates cut off to be in the house of the  emperor  They were often times the main confident to the emperor  15­20 years of study to become a master of Confucian o 15­20 years to study for the government exams to be apart of the  government as a Confucian  Confucians do not like eunuchs because they do not have to work as hard to have  an influence in the empire   1424 Yongle Emperor dies   Leads to the eventual dissolution of the massive fleet   Because the Yongle Emperor was the one in favor of the expeditions   Confucians get the ear of the new emperor and begin to talk him out of these  expeditions  1433­ decree that all the ships should be sunk   Zheng He­ acquire all the documents that say that he existed and burn the, to erase  him from history   Why? o To ensure that when Europeans venture into this part of the world the fleet  won’t be there o Two groups of people would still dominate the trade B.  1. Post 1433­ Mamluks and Gujarati 2. Mamluks Dominate Trade Between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean 3. Biannual Voyages, Based on Seasonal Winds 4. Little Desire for Exploration 5. 1453­ Fall of Constantinople  Often times would harness the monsoon  Half fleet would go west, other to east  Began to establish colonies▯Africa and India for example   Gujarati and Mumlaks began to dominate the trade   Expense of the goods by the time they got back to Europe, were extremely high   1453­Constantinople fell o Conduit through which silk road route ran through  o Fell to Muslim empire  II. Beyond the Mediterranean  A. The Atlantic Barrier B. The Portuguese  Pre­Notes:  Move the center of Europe out of the Mediterranean  1. Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean  2. Fear of the Atlantic Ocean 3. Monsters, Satan, and Vikings 4. The Role of Venice and Genoa 5. Desire to Find Trade in the Atlantic  Atlantic Ocean was really scary for most of the people  Huge vast ocean of unknown expanse  Greeks way back like Plato, projected that west of the pillars of Hercules, the  ocean would wrap around the earth all the way back to Greece  Sea of darkness and gloom   Begin to establish an idea that they needed to get over their fear and travel  Venetians and Genoans were incredible sailors  Had colonies outside of Alexandria, Syria, Constantinople   Could acquire all these materials and goods that were very desirable   Venetians and Genoans were business people, because of the Mongols, they were  losing their trade   Were aware of the great wealth to be had in Western Africa o Gold  o Metals o Pre­existing thriving slave trade that they could make money on  Decided to invest in looking west to break the “Atlantic Barrier” B.  1. 15  Century – Portugal Strong Monarchical State 2. 1419­ Henry the Navigator and Exploration 3. The Atlantic Archipelagos  4. 149­ Vasco de Gama Reaches Calicut 5. The Carrying Trade and Trade Empire  Henry the Navigator third in the line for King  Very fascinated in Africa  Sugar was a crop that became large  Acquired slaves from Africa to help do the labor of the sugar crop   Continue going East directly to the source  Goods in the bottom of the ship  Sell the goods  Receive 600% back profit  Age of Exploration  Asia  The Ming and Zheng He  The Ming Dynasty and the Yongle Emperor  1405 – 1433 – seven massive expeditions  Zheng He – Muslim Eunuch  1424 – Yongle emperor dies  Zheng He is outsider among Confucian elite ♦ Zheng He with the government ♦ Nervous about the Ming dynasty and keeping his power ♦ Was constantly engaged in military affairs with northern territories ♦ Established diplomatic alliances with Japanese and China ♦ Would send god Buddha’s to people ♦ Key element were the expeditions ♦ Funded the construction of massive ships ♦ Floated all around India ♦ Had ships full of treasure from Chinese ♦ Has 28,000 troops on board ♦ Had cannons, silk, etc. ♦ Rarely took military action ♦ Power play ♦ Locals were scared when they saw the fleet of ships coming in but were pleasantly surprised when they brought treasure ♦ Demonstration of power ♦ Showed they were benevolent ♦ ZH led these expeditions ♦ Muslim of Mongol descent ♦ Had the hajj to Mecca ♦ Was a eunuchs  Had privates cut off to be in the house of the emperor ♦ Main confidant to the emperor ♦ 15 to 20 years of study required to be a Confucian ♦ Judged of penmanship, government exams, etc. ♦ Confucians did not like eunuchs because they do not have to work as hard to have influence in empire ♦ 1424 Yongle emperor dies ♦ His death leads to the dissolution of the massive fleet ♦ Because the Yongle emperor was the on in favor of the expeditions ♦ Confucians get the ear of the new emperor and begin to talk him our of continuing the expeditions ♦ 1433 – decree that all the ships should be sunk ♦ Zhen He – acquire all the documents that he existed and burn them to erase him from history ♦ Why?  To ensure that when Europeans venture into this part of the world the fleet wont be there  Two groups of people would still dominate the trade  Mamluks and Gujarati  Post 1433 – Mamluks and Gujarati  Mamluks dominate trade between Indian ocean and Mediterranean  Biannual voyages, based on seasonal winds  Little desire for exploration  1453 – Fall of Constantinople ♦ Would harness the monsoon ♦ Half fleet would go west and the other east ♦ Began to establish colonies – Africa and India for example ♦ Gujarati and Mumlaks began to dominate trade ♦ Expense of the goods by the time they got back to Europe were extremely high ♦ Constantinople fell to the Muslim empire  Beyond the Mediterranean  The Atlantic Barrier  Straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean  Fear of the Atlantic ocean  Monsters, Satan, and Vikings  The role of Venice and Genoa  Desire to find trade in the Atlantic ♦ Atlantic ocean was really scary to most people ♦ Huge vast ocean of unknown expanse ♦ Greeks way back like Plato projected that west pillars of Hercules, the ocean would wrap around the earth all the way back the Greece ♦ Sea of darkness and gloom with sea monsters ♦ Begin establish an idea that they needed to get over their fear and travel ♦ Venetians and Guenons were incredible sailors ♦ Had colonies outside of Alexandria, Syria, Constantinople ♦ Could acquire all these materials and goods that were very desirable ♦ Venetians and guenons were business people because of the Mongols they were losing trade ♦ Were aware of the great wealth to be had in west Africa  Gold  Metals  Pre-existing thriving slave trade ♦ Decided to invest in looking west to break the “Atlantic Barrier”  The Portuguese  15 Century – Portugal strong monarchial state  1419 – Henry the Navigator and Exploration  The Atlantic archipelagos  1498 – Vascos de Gama reaches Calicut  The carrying trade and trade empire The Spanish Empire – Part 1  Pre Notes:  Philip II was the king of Spain and the son of Charles V.  The best of the Hapsburg family  Become the emperor of the Spanish colonies in the Americans  Good at his job but kind of a jerk  Micromanaged by taking a hands on approach to governing his colonies  Very devoted catholic and thought that he was the “sword of the reformation” against Protestantism  By 1580 he had taken over the Portuguese empire  In 1583 he had developed and ego. Developed a coin that had his portrait on one side and a horse sitting on top of a globe on the other side with a Latin phrase “non sufficit orbis” – the world was not enough  Had territory in all 24 times zones  Over seas empire – 1 in world history  The sun never set on the Spanish empire  Non Sufficit Orbis  West to Asia?  Columbus from Genoa  Believes in western route to Asia  Pitches idea to both Portuguese and Spanish monarchs1492 – landfall in Hispaniola and Cuba  1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas ♦ Italy helps Portuguese with technology, military, etc. ♦ Portuguese trade with Italy help to bring the luxuries of the east west to Europe ♦ Columbus was influenced by Renaissance thinkers ♦ EUROPEANS DID NOT THINK THE WORLD WAS FLAT ♦ Intrigued by the fact that the circumference of the earth was smaller than it was ♦ They thought that the world was more land and less water ♦ Thought you could travel less by boat and more by land to get to other parts of the world ♦ Marco Polo started to think that Japan was 1500 miles east of China ♦ Columbus believed this myth so her thought that he could sail west quickly to Japan to get spices, silks, etc. ♦ Didn’t have the means to fund the expedition and needed sponsors  Went to the Portuguese  Said no to him – thought that their trade from the south with Africa was sufficient ♦ Columbus goes to the Spanish monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand and pitches the idea ♦ Competitive with the Portuguese and want to out-revolutionize them ♦ Give him three small boats and send him off to the west ♦ Columbus comes across that Canary Islands ♦ By luck the winds favor him  They blow east in the fall  The southern current helped as well  Crossed the Atlantic in 33 days  Lands on the Hispaniola Islands (Dominican Republic today) and thinks that he his in the indies ♦ Goes back to Spain and tells them that he found hunter gatherers with gold that attracts him to go back ♦ Want to go further west to find spices, silks, etc. ♦ Geographers realize that Columbus found a whole new landmass – he was not in Asia ♦ This threatens the Portuguese ♦ Don’t want to fight so they propose a treaty to the Spanish to protect their trade commerce ♦ Split the world in two with a line everything to the east is trade for the Portuguese and everything to the west is trade for the Spanish ♦ Set the boundaries for the Spanish and Portuguese ♦ Gives them access to ready made empires for the Spanish to take over  Hernan Cortes and the Aztecs th  By the 16 century, Mexica (Aztecs) dominate region  1519 – Cortes lands on eastern coast of Mexico  Steel weapons, horses, guns, disease  Indigenous help – Malinalli (Dona Marina) and Tlaxcalans  Montezuma II and Tenochtitlan ♦ Spanish use the Cubans go to explore ♦ Give Cortes horses, troops, and ships to start the exploration of the “life” that they found ♦ Once they make land fall he takes everyone off the ship to fight the locals and conquer ♦ Spanish are at a disadvantage ♦ 25 million people were living in Mexico ♦ Spanish only had 530 people  Outnumbered ♦ Spanish are not at a total disadvantage though ♦ Had steel weapons and armor ♦ Abyssinian – sharp could cut through armor (Spanish had this) ♦ Also had cross bows ♦ Spanish were able to win certain scrimmages ♦ They are given women slaves for their wins ♦ Given Dona Marina who could speak the Mayan language ♦ This gives Cortes the ability to communicate with the local inhabitants ♦ Comes to find out that there is a huge city and its whereabouts ♦ This is the Aztec empire  They had migrated south to the valley of Mexico and a lake  Are able to create a strong vast empire on this “island” in the lake  Practice sacrifice, played the Mexican ball game  Wanted a tribute of a human life ♦ When Cortes reaches the city it is like nothing they have every seen  Not like in Europe  250,000 people  Pyramids  Canals  Roads  Market places ♦ Montezuma had caught wind that Cortes was coming  Met Cortes outside the city  Cortes knew he was outnumbered  Montezuma wanted to gage the Spanish  Invites them to stay at the palace with him  Give the Spanish things like hot chocolate that they have never had before ♦ Cortes is there to conquer ♦ Kidnaps Montezuma and hold him for ransom ♦ Cortes hears that the Spanish are going to put a halt on his explorations because he burned his ships ♦ Goes back and kills that Spanish against him and brings back allies ♦ These allies do not like the Aztecs ♦ Eventually Cortes wins  Because of his military advantages  Dona Marina  Disease (biological warfare)  Carried diseases they didn’t even know they had  Aztecs had been exposed to it  Small pox, etc. ♦ New Spain is created  Francisco Pizarro and the Inca th  Inca empire emerges in Andes in 15 century  Pizarro launches his campaign in 1531-32  Atahualpa and Huascar  Similar to Mexico, things favor Spanish  Conquest in complete by the late 1530s ♦ Atahualpa in the north ♦ Huascar in the south ♦ Atahualpa had won over the south and went out to divide and conquer ♦ Pizarros had a premade empire in the Andes ready for him to use ♦ Start the empire of Peru in the Andes ♦ Was not satisfied with just having colonies in the 24 time zones ♦ The conquests of the Spanish rule have effect in all places of the world ♦ Europeans in the Americans changes things forever I. The Columbian Exchange  A. Europe 1942  Unified Spain  Advanced technology  Desire for exotic spices  Knowledge of the indies  In the year 1942, Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue o Wanted to find India and China  o Instead found a “New World”▯He didn’t realize it at the time o The first time in tens of thousands of years people and animals came from  Europe came into prolonged contact with the Americans  Tobacco▯America  Sugarcane▯Eurasia  Coffee▯Eurasia  Sweet Potatoes▯Americas  Peanuts▯Americas  Bananas▯Eurasia  Europe has a long history of livestock  Americas has long history of vegetables, fruits, etc  No peppers in Eurasia  In short: The Columbian Exchange fundamentally altered the ecological and  cultural trajectories of both Europe and the Americas  Quinine, the treatment for malaria (Old World disease) was found in the Americas  Americas spread useful crops to Eurasia o Corn, potatoes o Rich in carbs (energy) o Largely ended famine in Europe o White Potatoes called Irish potatoes o China▯Leading producer of sweet potatoes in 2004 o Thai cuisine and peanuts  Africa also saw population growth o This growth fueled the slave trade o The numbers of slaves taken from Africa should have resulted in  demographic collapse  What about the Vikings? o While the Vikings did settle briefly at Newfoundland, they did not engage  in the exchange that characterized the Spanish Empire  How did Europeans come to dominate the Americans if the New World had such  great stuff? o Diseases! o Estimates that Europeans killed as many as 90% of American Indians o More conservative estimates still argue for at least 54 million o Native populations were less than 6 million by 1650 through disease and  warfare o Created much of the empty land that the Europeans settled o Disease not only killed people, it also disrupted economic and social  systems Incan empire and dynastic quarrels­­­enabled Pizarro to conquer  200 men  A very small force of Spaniards was able to topple an empire due to chaos   Europeans spread livestock, cash crops, and people to the New World o Sugar, coffee, rice and cotton o Cattle, sheep and horses o Slave trade forcibly brought millions of people to work in cash crop  agriculture   Impact of livestock on the landscape was another significant impact of the  exchange   It wasn’t all food and disease though  The New World also had: o Silver and Gold  Greatly expanded the money available to Europeans  Enabled them to both grow their internal European economy and  trade with China and India for things they wanted (which was the  whole point of exploring in the first place) o Land o Europe faced a shortfall of land for agricultural use o Provided a population “relief valve” o Discovering the New World also gave the Christian missionaries another  reason to continue their expansion in the name of God o Gave them a new place to evangelize  III. Creating Latin America . Appropriated Existing Political Structures but Introduced their own institutions  Aztec Empire consisted of tributary states Incan system of roads and infrastructure helped Spaniards  Once defeated, the Spaniards could use these existing systems to control the newly conquered people easily o E.g., Mexico City is built on top of the oldAztec capital of Tenochtitlan  Double-Mistaken Identity 2. Creation of Caste System The Castes- Mulattos and Mestizos  These are actual people who are the products of interracial marriage 3. Criollos and Peninsulares 4. Catholicism and the Black Legend  Technology o Mounted warriors o Steel weapons and armor o Gunpowdernot as important right now  Europeans willing to commit remarkable acts of violence o Violent society in Europe—(Black Legend’s beginnings?) o American weapons unable to compete (gunpowder did not play a decisive role) o Small numbers of Europeans meant a show of force was frequently required  StillAztecs forced Cortes out of Tenochtitlan before eventually being defeated by disease rather than weapons  Things to take away from today’s lecture: o The exchange of organisms, goods, and ideas after 1492 between the Americas and Europe fundamentally altered the course of history  Indigenous populations were critically damaged by Europeans diseases • Difficult to mount resistance, enabled Europeans to conquer • Long-term effects of disease  The agricultural crops exchanged benefitted Europeans the most o Old World crops grew well in the New World with fewer pests o New World crops often had better caloric and nutrient values o The exchanging and mixing of agricultural products resulted in a more varied diet  Cultural Exchanges created a totally new society in LatinAmerica that blended Spanish and indigenous cultural traditions  The crucial role of humans in shaping the environment o Plants and animals that evolved for millennia apart were thrust together in the span of a few decades o Without intending to, Europeans altered both the ecological and physical properties of the places traveled SI Definition: The Columbian Exchange  The result was an exchange or goods, organisms, ideas or diseases. Europe in 1492  Unified Spain  Advanced technology  Desire for spices  Silk roads  Bypassing Islamic empires  Knowledge of Indies Additional Info  Corn and potatoes ended the famine in Europe  Slave trade, number of slaves taken fromAfrica which SHOULD have ended up in a demographic collapse inAfrica, but didn’t  The cultural exchanges created a totally new world in LatinAmerica that blended Spanish and indigenous traditions  New World had silver and gold that expanded money for Europeans and enabled them to grow economy and trade  Europe didn’t have a lot of land, but the New World did  Christian missionaries expanded their mission there  Humans played crucial role in shaping environment  Inca system of roads and infrastructure helped Spaniards o Spaniards used the already existing system to control people  Creation of caste system  More nutritious value and better diet  Black LegendCatholicism  Technology from Spanish, mounted warriors, gun powder, steel weapons, and armor I. Manila Pre-Notes:  Roots of what we think of modern racism  Caste system based on ideas of racial identity  Blancos: white peopleblanket term I. Pacific Dreams A. Magellan and Urdaneta B. Galleons and Silver A.  Columbus 1492  Signed Treaty of Tordesillasdivided world in half  East of the line: Portugal had rights  West of the line Spanish had right  Meant Spanish continued to look West  1513, Balboa sailed down to Panama  Waded out into the ocean  Manila Galleon A. 1. Spain Still Dreams ofAsia 2. 1519- Ferdinand Magellan’s Voyage Begins 3. 1522- Circumnavigation of the Globe 4. 1564- Andres de Urdaneta’s Voyage 5. Philippines and Mexico Connected  Magellan thinks that SouthAmerica isn’t that large  He goes to Portuguese, they deny him  Portugal making large amount of money trading around Indian Ocean  Magellan then goes to Spain, King Charles the V  King thinks he doesn’t have much to lose  Gives him crew of 250 and 5 ships, set sail 1519  Get to coast of South AmericaWhere’s the Cape? o Way south and the Cape still isn’t there o Finally get around SouthAmerica o Known today as Straits of Magellan o Strong currents, lots of islands o Takes them 7 weeks to get around SouthAmerica  On the ocean for months, dying, and so on and so forth  Stop in Philippines, gets himself in local disputes  Gets in fight and he dies  Crew continues on and finally gets to spice islands  And then land into Spain  1522took 3 years. Half the crew is dead.  They have circumnavigated the globe  Philip the II wants to find a practical route to get to Spice Islands  Hires Andres de Urdaneta to find this efficient route o Sails to Philippines, then up, and goes along 11,000 miles o 4 months later, Port ofAcapulco in Mexico o Found a way to connect Spanish possessions inAmerica toAsia  Philip the II begins to establish cities in Philippines  1571take over Manila in Philippines  Because of Urdaneta’s expeditions, we see connection between Philippines and AmericasSpanish possessions B. 1. Ming Currency Becomes Silver Based 2. 1545- Potosi Silver Strike 3. Spanish Adapt Old Inca System of Mita 4. 1572- Creation of the Manila Galleon Trade 5. Manila Becomes Lynchpin of Columbia Exchange in Pacific  Peru provided much more wealth than theAztec Empire did  Silver mines in the Andes Mountains  Potosi, began to dig and found the most silver mine in the world o Arguably in history  Need people to dig for this silver  Peruvians already had created this kind of tribute to the Incan EmpireMita  Force indigenous populations to dig for the silver  Diseases, thousands die because this is brutal work o Great for Philip the II though  One mine, provides over one half of world’s silverjust the Potosi mine  They take the silver and pour them into ships and then sail across the Pacific Ocean to Manila  Chinese come to Manila with silks and spicesbegin to trade for silver  Fill up the ships with silks and spices and goodies  Foods like sweet potatoes and others get taken in through Manila II. Columbian Exchange, Pacific Style A. Manila and Exchange B. Chinos and Galleons A. 1. Confessional State of Spain Seen in Manila 2. Filipinos Catholic and MaintainAnimist Traditions 3. Powerful Landowning/Merchant Families and the Church 4. Chinese and Japanese Immigrants Arrive 5. Cultural Tensions in City  When the conquered the Philippines o Named after their Monarch o Philip the II o Shows how big his ego was  Alot of this conversion is brutal  Basically export the Spanish Inquisition to the Philippines o Tortured if they did not convert  Horrible amount of violence the Spanish did to the Philippines  Did not just use brutal means to expand Catholicism to this part of the world o Missionaries that came began to apply this idea of cultural melding  Missionaries wanted to make Catholicism attractive by using Catholic Saints o Filipinos believed that everything had a spirit o Saints appealed to them because of this  Voluntarily come to the religion is better to the missionaries than the Filipinos giving in to the beating and not the actual religion  Building of society that was very hierarchal o At the top, merchant elite wedded to the Catholic Church o At the bottom Filipinos  Something in Japan the Chinese wantedsilver  Force Chinese and Japanese to live in certain places in Manila o Dark side of Columbian Exchange  Spanish get nervous every once in a while and commit violent acts B. 1. Galleons Bring Not Just Goods, But People FromAsia 2. AsiansArrive as Sailors, Servants, and Slaves 3. C. 1600 Most Crews on Galleons LargelyAsian 4. Spanish CallAllAsians “Chino” and Find it Difficult to Place Them in Castas System  Chino blanket term the Spanish used for people fromAsia  Chinos had ambiguous place in LatinAmerican society  Don Francisco challenges the whole casta system to marry a woman III. Conclusion 1. Zheng He’s Expeditions Illustrate Both Chinese Power andALost Opportunity 2. Muslim Control Over Trade and New Muslim States Motivate Europeans to Search for New Trade Opportunities 3. Portuguese Lead the Way, Gain Control of Indian Ocean Carrying Trade 4. Columbus Accidently Gives the Spanish Edge in theAmericas 5. Spanish Empire Instrumental in Creating the Globally Changing Effects of the Columbian Exchange  Massive naval power of the Ming Dynasty wasn’t there  Portuguese wouldn’t have been able to do what they did if the Ming Dynasty ships were still around o Be trade kings o Muscle in territory  Always had dreams ofAsiaSpanish  Manilaensure Columbian Exchange (still living with consequences of it today), not only an Atlantic phenomenon but a Pacific one as well SI Vasco Nonez de Balboa  1513  First he sails the Gulf of Mexico to Panama  Hears rumors about the Pacific o Wants to discover it  The Pacific Ocean was claimed for Spain  Not looking for western route toAsia Spain  Still determined to find the western route toAsia  Portugal still runs theAsian trade Ferdinand Magellan  1519  Didn’t think South America was as big as it actually was  Agreed with Columbus that a Western route toAsia is faster than an Eastern route because he thought it was actually much smaller than it actually is  Goes to Portugal, think its interesting but they have no incentive because they are thriving in the Indian Ocean  Goes to King Charles the V in Spain  Spain gives him 5 ships and 250 men Ferdinand Magellan’s Voyage  1519  Takes him 7 weeks to get around the cape of SouthAmerica  Now called the Straits of Magellan  Stop in SouthAmerica for provisions for a little while  Winds help them out, finally make it around the cape, also use the current  End up in Philippines, Magellan gets in a fight and dies  The crew keeps going and ends up in Indonesia 1522  Finally the globe has been circumnavigated  The first time this has ever happened  Comparable to the Vikings  Learn from this that the entire world is much larger than they thought it was  Western route to Asia is NOT faster  Leads them to think that they need to think outside the box Andres de Urdaneta  Best friend is Philip II  Philip thinks that he could connect his empire (Spain) toAsia  Philip the II commissionedAndres  Tells him to sail east from the Philippines to try and connect to Mexico
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