[HIST 1020] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (22 pages long)

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HIST 1020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
French Revolution
1. Society under the Ancien (old) Regime
-Absolutist monarchy (louis XIV)
King and queen were absolutists who approached unlimited power
Individuals have no rights and no legal protection
-First estate- clergy (catholics), priests, bishops, archbishops, monks, nuns1.5% of population
See to overall spiritual welfare of kingdom
Not subject to legal system
Political influence
Do’t pa taes
Resistant to change
Involved in politics
Want to keep things the same
-Second estate- aristocrats, nobles (born into group)2-3% of population
Exempted from taxes
Were once soldiers, retained status
Control government offices
Control government at local level
Symbols of wealth and power
-Third estate- everyone else95% of population
Miscellaneous category
Do the work (doctors, lawyers, merchants)
Bourgeoisie (wealthy)- est eduated, do’t hae the sae speial
privileges
Sans-culottes (without culottes i.e. fancy knee pants)- work for
bourgeoisie
Working class, but not peasants- there is’t alas ork
Rural peasants (85% of population)- a I get eough alories fro the
groud so I do ot die
Poorest, hardest lives; pay most of the taxes
Pay half of what they make in taxes
Water had a lot of germ (could kill them), drank beer instead
2. Financial Crisis
-the debt (very heavy)- the fault of Louis XVI
-see ears’ ar aused det lost
-Calonne- finance wizard (wants to tax poor)
Proposed tax reform- would hit the first and second estate hard
-Has to go through the estates geeral to refor taes Louis XVI does’t at to
-The assembly of Notables (1787)- pick notable people to approve minor changes (backfired)
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Deaded full audit of kig’s fiaes
Wats full otrol of Frae’s fiaes
Louis rejects, fires Calonne
-Resistance of the Parlement (like a supreme court)
-kicks out stubborn ones, they proceed to go on strike
-if he wants to change taxes, he has to go to estates general
-French looked to American example
3. Estates general (1789)
-Seating and voting procedure- each estate gets one vote
-clear to third estate that the clergy and nobles will vote as a block
-Third estate wants individual vote in the same room to allow for open debate (Louis vetoes)
-third estate changes name to national assembly
-Louis gets salty and locks them out of the room
-Tennis court oath (June 1789)
Delare the o’t stop util there is a ritte ostitutio that liits the poer of the
king
Little change creates momentum for more change (pendulum thesis)
-Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)
Momentum for revolution is building
Army is called in
Regular people gather weapons to fight troops
Bastille is a symbol for the absolutist power of the king; symbolizes the moment when
the people took control
-The Great Fear
News spread
Terrorized nobles
4. Work of the National Assembly
-Decrees of August 4, 1789- made 19 decrees
-frees French serfs- emboldened more change
-Declaration of Rights of Men
Thomas Jefferson was in France- friends with Lafayette (Lafayette!), helped him
Declared all men free and equal, explained rights
-New constitution
1791- constitutional monarchy
King loses a lot of power
5. Legislative Assembly
-Composition
Republic- government without a king
Political parties- Girondists (middle class) and Jacobins (radical, working class)
Laissez-faire- hands off, government has no hand (Girondists)
Hands on government (Jacobins)
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