[PSYC 2010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

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Auburn
PSYC 2010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PSYCH 2010
Lecture 1
Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology
Why Study Psychology?
o Most people are iterested i figurig out others’ ehaior
Humans are intuitive psychologists
o Psychological science:
The study of mind, brain, and behavior
o Goals of psychology: Understand mental activity, social interactions, and how
behavior is acquired
Another goal: CRITICAL THINKING
Amiable skepticism: open to new ideas, but wary of findings not
supported by good evidence and sound reasoning
Psychological Science teaches critical thinking
o Can people intuitively know if claims related to psychology are fact or fiction?
o Critical thinking:
Systematically evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusion
Baby Mozart: Researchers found that listening to Mozart led
research participants to score higher on a test related to
intelligence.
Subsequent research largely failed to get the same results
A review of studies testing the Mozart effect showed that
listening to Mozart is unlikely to increase intelligence
o Factors of critical thinking:
Ignoring evidence (confirmation bias)
If you agree ith a perso’s iepoit, you’ll agree ith
everything they say
Source credibility
Just eause soeoe says they’re redile does’t ea they
really are
Not using statistics (60% of the tie… it orks all the tie)
Iflaatory stateets, people do’t use statistis right
Relative comparisons (framing the issue as positive or negative)
Only focus on one point of the argument; ex: abortion- life is
valuable vs. woman has right to own body (focus on completely
different aspects of argument)
After the fact explanations (Hindsight is 20/20)
Mental shortcuts (jumping to quick conclusions)
Beause soeoe just ige athed shark eek, they’re goig
to automatically assume that shark attacks happen more often
tha soeoe ho did’t ath it
Self-serving bias (interpret info to support positive self-image)
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Similar to confirmation bias
History of Psychology
o Scientific foundations
Psychology originated in philosophy
Chinese/ Muslim philosophers and scientists speculated about human
behavior
People were trying to figure out why people act the way they act, but
istead of testig their hypothesis’, they assued they ere right just
eause they ere sart
o The Nature vs. Nurture debate
Nature-
Plato- everything we know is innate
Nurture-
Aristotle- everything we know is learned
Examples of nature vs. nurture
Some achieves greatness due to an innovation
o Nature: parets are itelliget, or sart
o Nurture: upbringing and school system
o The mind/ body problem
Are the mind and body separate and distinct?
Early scholars: The mind is entirely separate from and in control of
the body
The mind is not a physical entity
1500s: Challenged by Leonardo da Vinci
1600s: Dualism suggested body and mind were separate
Rene Descartes- believed that the mind and body are separate but can
interact with each other (Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am)
Modern psychologists reject that separation
Descartes beliefs:
o If humans are free, then that which is free is not subject to
the laws of physics (extension)
o However, all physical things are subject to the laws of
physics (by definition)
o Therefore, the mind (the source of free will) must not be
physical in nature
o The presence of a mind allows human beings to transcend
their physical bodies and be free.
o “iee rejets the idea that a has free ill
And there is no soul
o Schools of Thought
Experimental psychology and the scientific method
John Stuart Mill argued psychology should be a science of
observation and of experimentation
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