[PSYC 2010] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (21 pages long!)

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Auburn
PSYC 2010
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
The Science of Psychology
Psychology is
Study of mind (mental processes), brain (biological anatomical structure), behavior (actions)
A science
o Based on empirical evidence (experiments, observations)- tested and scientifically
measured
o Anything else is likely unreliable (self-help books, palm reading)
A psychologist is
Someone who studies mental activity and behavior
A psychologist is not
A mind reader
A mind controller
Critical thinking
Questioning information using well-supported evidence
aiale skeptiis
o Vaccine/autism scandal
o Baby Mozart
o Most things on Facebook
Biases in thinking
Our brains seek patterns
o Ofte he the do’t eist
o Influenced by expectations
Horoscopes, fortune cookies
o Overemphasize coincidences
Superstitions
o Confirmation bias
Selectively attend to evidence that confirms our beliefs
o Hidsight ias: ke it all alog effet
Once we know the outcome we think we could have predicted it
o Self-serving bias
Overconfidence
History Overview
The development of psychology
Identify major themes
Introduce the major schools of thought
The history of psychology
Originated in philosophy
o Aristotle, Plato, Confucius
Not scientific
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Causes of Behavior
What makes someone a good athlete?
What makes someone intelligent?
What determines personality?
What causes mental disorders?
Nature versus nurture
The nature vs. nurture debate
o Nature: inherited traits
o Nurture: experience, education, culture
Example:
o When someone achieves greatness thanks to an innovation
Nature: parents were intelligent; or sart
Nurture: upbringing and school system
o Both nature and nurture are inextricably linked
Schools of thought
Beginning of Experimental Psychology
Depart from philosophy and became a science of observation and experimentation
Wilhelm Wundt- 1st psychology lab (1879)
o Studied reaction time
o Developed method of introspection- ispetig ad reportig o oe’s o iteral
thoughts
Structuralism- studying the underlying compounds of mental experience
o Ex. What is fear?
Arousal
Behavior
Cognitions
Schools of Thought
William James criticized structuralism
Mid osists of a strea of osiousess, a’t e roke do ito eleets
o Its purpose is more important
o What is the futio of fear?
Ex. Is fear ever dysfunctional?
phobias
Functionalism
o Examine the function served by the mind
o The mind evolved for preserving life
o Helps humans adapt to environmental demands
o Iflueed  Dari’s eolutioar theor
Gestalt theory
o The whole is different from the sum of its parts
Perception of objects
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