[BIO 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 12 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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BIO 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BIO 111 Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Jan 10, 2017
What is a living thing?
Seven characteristics of life: Has order, evolutionary adaptation, response to stimuli (external
or internal), reproduce, grow & develop, energy processing, regulation
Viruses are an exception.
They have evolutionary adaptation, they respond to stimuli, and they have order.
They do not grow and develop, they do not process energy, and they do not regulate(do not
have anything TO regulate)
They do not reproduce, they more or less inject their own genetic information into a host cell
that becomes a new virus
Life is studied at different hierarchical levels, branching from the entire planet down to
molecules. This is biological organization
The Biosphere consists of all life on earth and all regions where life can exist
Ecosystems all living and non-living things in a particular area
Communities the diverse organisms that inhabit an ecosystem (living things)
Populations all the individuals of a species in a defined area
Organisms individual living things
Continued Jan 12, 2017
Organs and Organ Systems Body parts that carry out a key function in the body; organs that
have the same purpose work together
Tissues Groups of cells that work together to perform a specialized function
*Heart has four different types of tissue, all have different purposes*
Cells fundamental unit of structure and function. All living things have to have at least one
cell
Organelles functional components within cells that all have their own job
Molecules chemical structure made up of two or more atoms
Atom smallest measurement of life
Life is classified into one of 3 domains:
Bateria, Archaea, Eukarya (Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Protists)
Relationships between two organisms are related to each other by genetics, not appearance
The Process of Science
Exploration and Discovery
Forming and Testing Hypotheses
Community Analysis and Feedback
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Societal Benefits and Outcomes
Very fluid and flexible process which means you can go back at any point and do any step in any
way
1. Make an observation
2. Form a hypothesis (ask questions)
3. Perform the experiment
4. Analyze the data (Quantitative or Qualitative)
5. Report your findings
6. Invite others to reproduce the results
A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a well framed scientific question, usually a rational
accounting for a set of observations. Needs to be a testable statement and repeatable by
others, consistent with known facts and falsifiable (supernatural and religious explanations are
outside the bounds of science)
Hypothesis can be supported or not supported, data comes along later that either proves or
disproves
Prediction- is a way of testing hypothesis, by making additional observation or by performing
experiments
Done by a controlled experiment
Experimental Variables and Controls
In a controlled experiment, an experimental group is compared with a control
Ideally experimental and control groups differ in only the one factor under investigation(one
variable)
Without controls, the researchers would not be able to rule out other factors besides the
variable being tested that might have affected the results
Hypothesis-driven experiments are designed to test whether a particular independent variable
(what the experimenter changes) causes a change in a particular dependent variable (what the
experimenter observes or measures)
CONTROL: Positive- conditions cause change in variable being tested (show what a positive
result looks like, or shows it is possible) (ANY ANTIBIOTIC THAT IS ALREADY KNOWN TO KILL
BACTERIA)
Negative- conditions known not to cause change in variable being tested (show
what a negative result looks like) (DID NOT GIVE DRUG, GIVE WATER/ETHANOL TO ACCOUNT
FOR ADDED ___)
Experimental: one in which you are changing the variable being measured (GETS THE UNKOWN
DRUG)
Sampling error occurs when you only look at a subset of a population
can lead to inaccurate conclusions
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