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SOC 100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Solidarity, Dependent And Independent Variables, Historical Method


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 100
Professor
Dr.Xu
Study Guide
Midterm

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Sociological Perspective
1. What is sociology? What are main characteristics of sociology? How is sociology distinct
from other social science discipline?
- Sociology is the study of human society
- Main characteristics of sociology is that it is a social science, pure science,
categorical discipline and not normative, abstract science, generalizing science,
general science, both rational and empirical
2. What is sociological imagination and who coined this term?
- C. Wright Mills coined the term sociological imagination
- Sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between a person’s
behavior and experience and the wide culture that shaped the person’s choices and
perceptions
- A way of seeing our own and other people’s behavior in relationship to history and
social structure
- Helps us to connect our personal experience to society at large historical forces
- “make familiar strange” or to question habits or customs that seem “natural”
3. What is Durkheim’s normative theory of suicide?
- Suicide rates are strongly influenced by social forces (extension factors)
- Level of solidarity -> Variation in suicide rates
- Social Integration + Social Regulation
4. What are social solidarity, social integration, and social regulation?
- Social solidarity is social ties that bind a group together such as kinship, shared
location, and religion
- Social integration is how well one is integrated into his/her social group or
community
- Social regulation is the number of rules guiding one’s daily life and more specifically
what you can reasonably expect from the world on a day to day basis
5. What are four types of suicide?
- Altruistic suicide – when norms tightly govern behavior, individual actions are often
in the group interest; high level of social solidarity (ex. sacrifices during wartime)
- Egoistic suicide – lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak
social ties to others (ex. Lily a loner with few friends, no husband, no children
commits suicide)
- Anomic suicide – norms governing behavior are vaguely defined; low level of social
solidarity
- Fatalistic suicide – there is too much social control
6. Who coined the term sociology?
- August Comte coined the term sociology in 1839
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7. What is social structure and what are the three levels of social structures?
- Social structure is a stable pattern of social relations
- Levels of social structure
oMicrostructures are patterns of intimate social relations (family
members, friends, couples, etc.)
oMacrostructures are patterns of social relations outside your circle of
intimates and acquaintances (races, class, gender relations)
oGlobal structures are international organizations, worldwide travel and
communication, and economic relations between countries
(international organizations)
Sociological Theories and Theorists
1. Understand and describe the four major theoretical traditions of sociology:
functionalism (including manifest function, latent function, and dysfunction), conflict
theory, symbolic interactionism, and feminist theory (including patriarchy).
- Functionalism
oAlso known as structural-functional theory
oHow is society integrated?
oMacro-level grand theory
oSees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet
biological and social needs of the individuals of that society
oParts of society work together to keep the society functioning and so it
is harmonious and stable
oManifest function are consequences of a social process that are sought
and anticipated; intended and easily observed
oLatent functions are unsought consequences; unintended and less
obvious
oDysfunctions are disruptive consequences
- Conflict theory
oHow is society divided?
oLooks at society as a competition for limited resources
oMacro-level theory
oSociety is not harmonious
oUses class and class struggle as analytical tools
- Symbolic Interactionism
oHow is society experienced?
oMicro-level theory
oFocuses on relationships among individuals within a society
oExamines how people interact and interpret/makes sense of their lives
How to use symbols to establish meaning
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