• Trace the changes in the Democratic and Republican parties over time, and
understand the major positions embraced by each.
Old style Democrats Old style Republicans
1. Pro state governments 1. Pro federal government
2. Pro farmers & “little guys” 2. Pro industrialists & merchants
3. Rural 3. Urban
4. Concentrated in the South and the West 4. The North and the East
5. Deeply racist 5. Committed to emancipation
6. Against Tariffs and Gold Standard; 6. For Tariffs, Gold standard, and Deflation.
● Populist Party, farmers that usually represented by the the Democratic Party
asked for government regulation.
● President Wilson is a Democrats, who believed in strong federal
● Followed by FDR presidency, Democrats took the stance of strong federal
● The Democrats took the lead on this issue. They changed their position to
Pro federal government which forced the Republicans to switch to the other
● Republicans are always Pro Business no matter they are pro federal
government or not
New style Democrats New style Republicans
Pro Federal governments Pro state government
Pro progressive taxation; Pro Flat taxation for all (including wealthy
Minimum wage people);
Wages set by markets Favor deregulation
Pro Choice; support abortion & Roe vs Pro Life; not support abortion & Roe vs
Pro Usually gay marriage Pro Usually straight marriage
• Understand the ways in which “Progressive” ideology has been expressed in American
politics from the 1890s onward.
Progressive Willing to expand the power of the government to control structures of
capitalism/society. Willing to subvert democracy to flourish reforms.
Brought up by Teddy Roosevelt's administration, Progressivism platform serves as basis for the
20th century political liberalism. Government becomes more interventional ever since with
Woodrow Wilson & FDR presidency, both expanded the power of government in citizens’ lives.
The mood of Progressivism ended during the 1920 (After WWI & Amendment for Women's right
• Trace the various gains and setbacks that affected women from the 1890s onward.
The 1890s launched what would later be called the “women’s era” three decades during which
women, although still denied the vote, enjoyed larger opportunities than in the past for economic
independence and played a greater and greater role in public life. Women began to fight for
equality in employment, education, and politics.
During Progressive Era, women were involved in factory jobs in a huge amount.
At the time, women demanded the right of birth control, which was oppressed by the government
at that time
In the Roaring twenties (1920s), more women were college students, new culture of dating,
women want the right to smoke and drink, part of a larger cultural shift towards individualism.
During WWII, new opportunities of jobs in industrial, professional, and government positions
previously restricted to men were open up for women.
● Women demanded the prohibition of alcoholic beverages > 18th Amendment ratified in
1919. However repealed by 21st Amendment by 1933.
● 19th Amendment grant women right to suffrage in 1920 • Understand how fashion serves to broadcast political beliefs.
Hull House: Women in their sport dress, showing the shape of their legs. Women push against
the traditional expectation of the society.
In the 1920s, female liberation resurfaced as a lifestyle. With new image of “bobbed hair, short
skirts, public smoking and drinking, and usage of birth control methods such as the diaphragm”
young women epitomized their new freedom in the society.
In the 1950s, Long dress which covers the whole body. Women became more conservative
again. Against abortion right.
In the 1960s, Rebell against the 50s generation. Rise of the Hippies. Women became more
willing to show their skins again.
• Compare and contrast the “sexual revolutions” of the 1920s and the 1960s/1970s.
● Rise of birth control and feminism leads to sexual “liberation” outside the confines of
● Divorce rate rises, birth rate drops.
● Decriminalization of homosexual acts
● A “crisis” in the traditional American family
● More women on college campus
● new culture of dating
● women want the right to smoke and drink
● part of a larger cultural shift towards individualism
● STILL within a broader culture that values family & marriage
• Document the economic climate of the 1920s, the reasons for the Great Depression,
and the major strategies and phases that the New Deal took to combat widespread
Economic of the 1920s
➔ Huge production boom, however, less worker required because the machines became
➔ Income gaps widened, rich business owners become more wealthy and the workers
➔ Rise of consumer value/culture
● Buy on credit
● Value through what one can buy instead of what one can make ➔ Overextension of American farming
● If there is one farmer upgrade his machines and increase his production, he will
be better off because he has more crops to sell at the original price. However,
when every farmer does the same thing, there will be a huge increase in supply.
When demand stay the same, increase in supply will cost the price to drop.
● In 1920s, there is a huge surplus of crops. Farmers were not able to sell their
crops in the price they expected to be or, even worse, they were not able to sell it.
● Farmers already in depression by the mid1920s.
The causes of the Great Depression
➔ Realestate bust in California and Florida
➔ Highly unequal distribution of income and prolonged agricultural depression reduce
➔ Stock Market Crash
● “Black Tuesday”: Oct. 29, 1929
● $10 billion market value lost in a day
➔ Run on banks
● People rush to take out all their savings from the bank.
➔ Exacerbated by gold standard
➢ First New Deal
➔ Sort out the bank system
● GlassSteagall Act
1. Prohibited commercial banks from participating in the
investment banking business. Banks cannot invest in stock
market because its unstable.
2. Creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC),
which provides deposit insurance guaranteeing the safety of a depositor's
accounts in member banks up to certain amount for each deposit
ownership category in each insured bank. Today the amount is up to
● US takes off the gold standard
➔ National Recovery Administration
● Allowed industries to get together and write "codes of fair competition."
● The codes were intended to reduce "destructive competition" and to help workers
by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours, as well as minimum
prices at which products could be sold.
➔ Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
● Designed to provide jobs for young men, to relieve families who had difficulty
finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States while at the same
time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every
state and territory.
● Promote environmental conservation
➔ Public Work Administration (PWA) ● A largescale public works construction agency.
● It built largescale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals, and schools. Its
goals were to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive
● Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
1. Dams Tennessee River, Providing jobs and eventually electricity for areas
➔ Agricultural Adjustment Act
● Attempt to raise farm price by destroying crops and life stocks.
● Large plantation land owners benefits
➔ Housing Reform
● Home Owners Loan Corporation and Federal Housing
➢ Second New Deal
➔ Rural Electrification Agency (REA)
● Created to bring electricity to rural areas.
➔ Work Progress Administration (WPA)
● Employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men) to carry out
public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads.
➔ Wagner Act
● Officially National Labor Relations Act (1935),
● It was enacted to eliminate employers’ interference with the autonomous
organization of workers into unions.
➔ Social Security Act
● to provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal oldage
benefits, and by enabling the several States to make more adequate provision for
aged persons, blind persons, dependent and crippled children, maternal and child
welfare, public health, and the administration of their unemployment
● to establish a Social Security Board;
● to raise revenue; and for other purposes.
• Demonstrate a rough knowledge of the waxing and waning of support for organized
labor throughout the 20th century. (XQ)
➔ 1869: Formation of the Knight of Labor. Right to strike.
➔ 1886: Haymarket Riot. Ended the Knight of Labor. People associated union supporters
➔ 1880s ~ 90s: Industrial boom in America. Big industrial owners were able to get
government on their side. Government sent out troops to put down the strike.
➔ “Teddy” Roosevelt support the labor strike. People were supporting the labor union since
then until WWI.
➔ WWI: Suspicious of the Union Leaders as spy of the enemy countries. ➔ 1930s ~ 1970: FDR supports the labor unions. When government fails support the labors
during the Great Depression, unions step up as major force.
➔ 1970s ~ present: Kickback on the support of union because of the economic recession
in the 1970. People blame union for overprotected their rights. People can’t really get
their job done under the union contract. Because they can only work for certain amount of
(1860) American Federation of Labor (AFL) The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
● Organized workers by craft ● Organized workers by industry
● Traditional forms of strike ● Innovate new methods like the
● No government intervention ● Advocate for an interventionist
● White, nativeborn male ● Racial inclusive
• Compare and contrast the leadup to and involvement in World Wars One and Two.
Alliance: Treaty of Versailles:
● It is the formal agreement of support ● Punishment Germany for the lost in
among countries in the event of an
attack. ● German people lived in a very harsh
● The conflict originally involved between circumstance under the Treaty of
two countries were likely to involve many
more countries due to the alliance. Versailles.
● For example, Germany was an ally of ● This creates hatred toward rest of
Austria Hungary, if they were at war,
then Germany would be automatically at
Nationalism: The League of Nations
● Pride or devotion to one's country. ● Failed to keep the peace
Nationalism encouraged unity, and also
would put nation against nation.
Imperialism: Rise of Fascism
● Britain, France, Germany, Italy and ● A system of government marked by
Russia all scrambles for colonies in centralization of authority under a
Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Each nation dictator, stringent socioeconomic
wanted new trade markets and the raw
materials of these new regions. controls, suppression of the ● The disagreement over the colony opposition through terror and
ownership cause cause conflict censorship, and typically a policy of
between these superpowers belligerent nationalism and racism.
● Germany: Rise of Nazi Party
★ Adolf Hitler
● Italy: National Fascism
★ Benito Mussolini
● Japan: Violence expansion in China
and other eastern territory
Militarism: Appeasement encouraged aggression
● The belief in building up a strong armed
forces to prepare your country for war.
Wilson declares strict neutrality US Isolationism
● Fear that immigrants would take sides ● 70% Americans Believe US was
“tricked” into WWI
● Neutrality Act signed by Congress
annually from 1935 to 1937 as a
reaction to Spanish Civil War (1936
Trade imbalance: US companies lend far more ● FDR tried to work around in his
money to Allies than Central Power capacity as commander in chief
Borrow Weapon to Europe
The sinking of Lusitania in 1915 Pearl Harbor Attack
● British cruise ship that was sunk by ● Dec.7, 1941
German Uboats (submarines) for ● Japanese planes bombed Pearl
suspicion of carrying supplies to
England. Harbor intended to cripple US
● Many Americans were on that ship ● USS Arizona: 1000 men killed in one
● More that 100 American die
Election of 1916 US entered the war at Dec. 8, 1941,
● Wilson win the election, pursued “Peace ● allies with Great Britain and Soviet
without victory” Union
Zimmerman Telegram, 1917 Disagreement over tactics
● German plot for an alliance with Mexico
● FDR promised Joseph Stalin
● Promise to return the land Mexico lost (USSR) a new front in Europe within
during the MexicanAmerican War, if a year by decided to attack Africa Mexico went to war with American first
● Enter WWI in 1917, the war ended in
1918, allies with Great Britain and
● 116,516 Americans die within 6 months
• Discuss how wartime tends to limit American citizens’ traditional freedoms. (XQ)
➔ During the wartime American citizens lose their traditional freedom of speech, and
freedom of press because government pass the law to limit unpatriotic activities.
➔ Many Americans force to serve the Draft (Especially the vietnam war).
➔ Government took control of the railroad (WWI).
➔ Limited jobs, most factory production were related to war production (WWI & WWII).
➔ Internment Camps: start in Cali. in 1942, desire to get Japanese American out of the “war
zone”. Many of them were American citizens(WWII).
➔ Patriot Act: Give government the right to monitor any people in US that they think is
suspicious of Terrorism
➔ Guantanamo Bay: A controversial United States military prison located within
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, established in January 2002. Often linked to torture.
• Demonstrate an understanding all the major outcomes (political, economic, cultural,
racial) coming out of World War Two. (XQ)
➔ Great Britain and France see collapse of oversea empires: end of colonialism.
➔ Soviet Union gets control of territory that are traditionally hostile to it.
➔ US become a superpower in the world.
➔ The UN form as an international peacekeeping arm.
➔ End of the Great Depression and new era of prosperity
● GNP: $91 billion to 166 billion
● 15 million new jobs
● In some place, personal income increase 200%
➔ New understanding of economic based on growth
● “Keynesian Economics” and indirect management
● A “Shelf” of government project after the war
● Solidifies some of the New Deal policies
➔ Cultural ● Second Great Migration
❏ Between 1910~1940: 1.5 million migrants
❏ In 1940s alone: 2 million migrants
● Challenges to gender norms
● Fear of people, fear of the state
❏ Fascism as an instructive example
● Look inward at our own racism exclusion
● Rise of the Civil Rights movement
• Trace the causes for the rise of the Cold War.(Jeanne)
Suspicion and mistrust had defined U.S.Soviet relations for decades and resurfaced as soon
as the alliance against Adolf Hitler was no longer necessary. Competing ideologies and visions
of the postwar world prevented U.S. president Harry S Truman and Soviet premier Joseph Stalin
from working together.
Stalin intended to destroy Germany’s industrial capabilities in order to prevent the country from
remilitarizing and wanted Germany to pay outrageous sums in war reparations. Moreover, he
wanted to erect proSoviet governments throughout Eastern Europe to protect the USSR from
any future invasions.
Truman, however, wanted exactly the opposite. He believed that only industrialization and
democracy in Germany and throughout the continent would ensure postwar stability. Unable to
compromise or find common ground, the world’s two remaining superpowers inevitably clashed.
Truman’s Postwar Vision: Truman worked tirelessly to clean up the postwar mess and
establish a new international order. He helped create the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and funded the rebuilding of Japan under General Douglas MacArthur. After
prosecuting Nazi war criminals at the Nuremberg trials, Truman in 1947 also outlined the
Marshall Plan, which set aside more than $10 billion for the rebuilding and re industrialization of
Germany. The Marshall Plan was so successful that factories in Western Europe were
exceeding their pre war production levels within just a few years.
-Stalin’s Postwar Vision
Although Stalin joined with the United States in founding the United Nations, he fought Truman on
nearly every other issue. He protested the Marshall Plan as well as the formation of the World
Bank and IMF. In defiance, he followed through on his plan to create a buffer between the Soviet
Union and Germany by setting up proCommunist governments in Poland and other Eastern European countries. As a result, the socalled iron curtain soon divided East from West in
Europe. Stalin also tried unsuccessfully to drive French, British, and American occupation forces
from the German city of Berlin by blocking highway and railway access. Determined not to let the
city fall, Truman ordered the Berlin airlift to drop food and medical supplies for starving Berliners.
Understand how the principle of containment affected United States’ international
involvement from 1945 to the end of the Cold War. (jeanne)
(Note: we can see the policy of the containment in some of these examples: The Berlin Issue,
NATO, Korean War,Vietnam war and etc.)
Communism threatened to expand, American aid might prevent a takeover. By vigorously
pursuing this policy, the United States might be able to contain communism within its current
● The policy became known as the Truman Doctrine, as the President outlined these
intentions with his request for monetary aid for Greece and Turkey.
● On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall announced the European Recovery
Program. To avoid antagonizing the Soviet Union, Marshall announced that the purpose
of sending aid to Western Europe was completely humanitarian, and even offered aid to
the communist states in the east. Congress approved Truman's request of $17 billion
over four years to be sent to Great Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, the Netherlands
● The Marshall Plan created an economic miracle in Western Europe. By the target date of
the program four years later, Western European industries were producing twice as
much as they had been the year before war broke out. Some Americans grumbled about
the costs, but the nation spent more on liquor during the years of the Marshall Plan than
they sent overseas to Europe. The aid also produced record levels of trade with
American firms, fueling a postwar economic boom in the United States.
● The Berlin Airlift and NATO:Truman was faced with tough choices. Relinquishing Berlin to
the Soviets would seriously undermine the new doctrine of containment. Any negotiated
settlement would suggest that the USSR could engineer a crisis at any time to exact
concessions. If Berlin were compromised, the whole of West Germany might question
the American commitment to German democracy. To Harry Truman, there was no
question. "We are going to stay, period, " he declared. Together, with Britain, the United
States began moving massive amounts of food and supplies into West Berlin by the only
path still open — the air.
● Korean War and Vietnam War United States involved in stalemates in the Korean War
and Vietnam War; Both the wars were protested vehemently in national scale and
international scale; United States lost tremendously on both wars.
● Latin America: The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962
● The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and was the
moment when the two superpowers came closest to nuclear conflict. The crisis was
unique in a number of ways, featuring calculations and miscalculations as well
● as direct and secret communications and miscommunications between the two sides.
● After the failed U.S. attempt to overthrow the Castro regime in Cuba with the Bay of Pigs
invasion, and while the Kennedy administration planned Operation Mongoose, in July
1962 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev reached a secret agreement with Cuban premier
Fidel Castro to place Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter any future invasion
● almost have another WWIII
● The End of the Cold War:
➔ Fall of Communism within former Soviet states
➔ Poland, state of Yugoslavia agitate to leave USSR
➔ Fall of Berlin wall in 1989
➔ Tiananmen Square 1989
● Studentled popular demonstrations in Beijing which took place in the
spring of 1989 and received broad support from city residents, exposing
deep splits within China's political leadership. The protests were forcibly
suppressed by hardline leaders. Due to the lack of information from China,
many aspects of the events remain unknown or unconfirmed. Estimates
of the death toll range from several hundred to the thousands.
• Discuss the major developments of the 1950s and how they changed American
● The number of houses in the United States doubled nearly all of them built in the suburbs
that sprang up across the landscape.
● The dream of ownership, the physical embodiment of hopes for a better life came within
reach of the majority of americans.
● A small suburban community called Levittown was built by William Levitt for returning
servicemen and their families became the most famous suburban developers.
● The 1950s represented the culmination of the longterm trend in which consumerism
replaced economic independence and democratic participation as central definitions of
● Attitudes toward debt changed as well. Low interest rates and the spread of credit cards
encouraged American to borrow money to purchase consumer goods. Americans
became comfortable living in neverending debt, once seen as a loss of economic
freedom. The TV World
● By the end of the 1950s , nearly nine of ten american families owned TV.
● Television replaced newspapers as the most common source of information about public
events and TV watching became the nation's leading leisure activity.
● Television changed Americans eating habits( the frozen TV dinner , heated and eaten
while watching a program went on sale in 1954) and it provided Americans of all regions
and backgrounds with common cultural experience.
● Television also became the most effective advertising medium invented.
The Car World
● Along with a home and television set, the car became the part of what sociologists called
‘the standard consumer package” of the 1950s.
● The automobile, the pivot on which suburban life turned, transform the nations daily life,
just as the interstate highway system transformed Americans travel habits, making
possible longdistance vacationing by car and commuting to work from everincreasing
● The result was an altered American landscape, leading to the construction of motels,
drivein movie theaters and roadside eating establishments.
Women at Work and at Home
● By 1955, the nature and aims of women’s work had changed. The modern woman
worked part time to help support the family's middle class lifestyle, not to help pull it out of
poverty or to pursue personal fulfillment or an independent career.
● Despite the increasing numbers of wageearning women, the suburbans family
breadwinner was assumed to be male, while the wife remained at home.
● Men and women reaffirmed the virtues of family life. They married younger( at an average
age of 22 for men and 20 for women), divorced less frequently than in the past and had
more children(3.2 per family). “Baby boom” that lasted in the mid 1960s.
● The family that life exalted during the 1950s differed from the patriarchal household of old.
It was a modernized relationship in which both partners reconciled family obligations with
personal fulfillment through shared consumption, leisure activities and sexual pleasure.
● The suburbs offered a new site for the enjoyment of American freedom but retained at
least one familiar characteristicrigid racial boundaries. Suburbanization hardened the
racial lines of division in American life.
● There are upper class suburbs, working class suburbs, industrial suburbs and
“suburban” neighborhoods within city limits.
● Federal agencies continued to insure mortgages that barred resale of houses to
nonwhites thereby financing house segregation.
● Residential segregation was reinforced by “blockbusting” a tactic of real estate brokers
who circulated exaggerated warnings of an impending influx of nonwhites, to persuade
alarmed white residents to sell their homes hastily. Because of this practice, some all white neighborhoods quickly became allminority enclaves rather than places where
members of different races lived side by side.
The Social Contract
● Unions signed longterm agreements that left decisions regarding capital investment,
plant location and output in managements hands and they agreed to try to prevent
unauthorized “wildcat” strikes. Employers stopped trying to eliminate existing unions and
granted wage increases and fringe benefits such as private pension plans, health
insurance and automatic adjustments to pay to reflect rises in the cost of living.
● Although the social contract did not apply to the majority of workers , who did not belong
to the unions, it did bring benefits to those who labored in nonunion jobs.
The Freedom Movement
● More immediate challenge to the complacency of the 1950s arose from the twentieth
century’s greatest citizen’s movement the black struggle for equality.
● The United States in the 1950s was still segregated , unequal society. Half of the nations
black families lived in poverty. In the South Jim Crow abandoned in separate public
institutions and the signs “white” and “colored” at entrance to buildings, train carriages,
drinking fountains, restrooms and the like.In the North and west, the law did not require
segreagation , but custom barred blacks from many coleges, hotels and restaurants and
from most suburban housing.
● Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas: The new chief justice, Earl Warren,
decided that segregation in public education, he concluded, violated the equal protection
of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. “ In the field of education, the
doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are
● The Montgomery Bus Boycott: In November 1956, the Supreme court ruled segregation
in public transportation unconstitutional.
• Understand how federal policies contributed to suburban sprawl (and the attendant
destabilization of traditional Northern urban centers).(jeanne)
Suburban Sprawl means :The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into
areas adjoining the edge of a city.
● Building of an efficient network of roads, highways and superhighways, and the
underwriting of mortgages for suburban onefamily homes, had an enormous influence
on the pace of suburbanization in that country. In effect, the government was
encouraging the transfer of the middleclass population out of the inner cities and into the
suburbs, sometimes with devastating effects on the viability of the city centers
● Banks also fueled the push out of cities, as in many cases, they redlined innercity
neighborhoods, denying mortgage loans there, and instead offering low rates in the
suburban areas. ● Race also played a role in American suburbanization. During World War I, the massive
migration of African Americans from the South resulted in an even greater residential shift
toward suburban areas. The cities became seen as dangerous, crimeinfested areas,
while the suburbs were seen as safe places to live and raise a family, leading to a social
trend known in some parts of the world as white flight.
• Trace the general changes in immigration policy from 1882 onwards.(jeanne)
Law Roots Provisions
Chinese Exclusion Act Many on the west coast of the This law severely limited
(1882) US (California) feared a Chinese immigration into the
"yellow peril" of Chinese US, it made provisions for
immigration. As more and types of workers allowed and
more Chinese immigrated to barred families from joining
work on the western existing immigrants."
railroads, many feared
competition for jobs .
In the wake of the "yellow While not a formal law, the
Gentleman's Agreement peril" and the barring of agreement did curb Japanese
(1907) Chinese immigration, the immigration into the US, as
Japanese and American much a desire of the
governments reached an Japanese government as the
agreement barring further US government.
Japanese immigration into
Literacy Tests Many believed that allowing The literacy tests denied
(1917) nonEnglish speaking admission to any immigrant
immigrants into the US was a who could not pass a basic
threat to assimilation, as reading/writing test.
language and loyalty was still
tied to the immigrant's
Emergency Quota Act With the memory of World The Emergency Quota act
(1921) War I still fresh in the limited the number of
American psyche, many immigrants allowed into the
looked to isolate the US from US to 350,000 per year.
involvement or association
with foreign governments.
Part of this reaction was also
a call to limit immigration. National Origins Act The nativist reaction to the The National Origins Act
(1924) immigration of the Gilded Age further restricted immigration
was a call to not only limit the by basing the numbers of
number of immigrants immigrants allowed from a
allowed into the US, but also specific region of the world.
restrict the country of their The effect was a severe bias
origin. This was as much a towards the northern and
racist reaction against the western European nations
increase in southern and that had been the "traditional"
eastern Europeans and Asian areas of immigration during
immigration as a call for the era of "old" immigration.
increased isolation from
National Origins Act With isolationism taking The second origins act
(1929) further hold during the 1920's, further reduced the number of
many critics called for greater immigrants allowed into the
and greater restrictions on US to 150,000 per year.
the number of immigrants.
Immigration Act of 1965 With attitudes towards US The 1965 Immigration Law
(1965) involvement in world affairs reopened the US borders for
changing and an increased greater numbers of
desire to reopen American immigrants, as well as greatly
shores to immigration, the modifying the regional and
restrictive immigration laws of ethnic restrictions and
the US were reexamined. instituting political oppression
as immigration reasoning.
Immigration Reform and The increased problem of The act increased the size
Control Act illegal immigration in the and scope of the US border
(1986) 1980's caused a call for patrol service as well as
greater monitoring and streamlining the process of
control of US borders. deportation of illegal
immigrants. The law also
punishes employers who
knowingly hired illegal
immigrants, but provided
limited blanket amnesty for
illegals who had been living in
the US since 1982 or prior. • Describe the evolving strategies in the fight for civil rights.(Jeanne)
Two Main strategies:
● DIRECT CONFRONTATION (Violence and Nonviolence)
● Legal: (Supreme Court Cases)
1. In the 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sanford, the Supreme Court declared
that slaves were property, and that all AfricanAmericans, free or slave,
were not citizens, and therefore had no right to sue in court.
2. In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that
racial segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal.
3. In the 1954 case of Brown v. Board, the Supreme Court overturned the
Plessy case by declaring that segregated facilities were inherently
unequal, and ordered the integration of the nation's public schools.
4. Little Rock Crisis: After schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, refused to admit
AfricanAmericans to allwhite schools, President Eisenhower authorized
the U.S. Army to escort and protect AfricanAmerican students.
● Direct Confrontation: (Non violence and Passive Resistance such as sitins,boycotts,
freedom from rides and etc)
Leader: Martin Luther King
1. In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat in the front of a
Montgomery, Alabama, public bus for a white rider. This attracted the
attention of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who organized the Montgomery
Bus Boycott, eventually resulting in the end of such racist policies. These
events sparked the modern Civil Rights Movement that allowed
AfricanAmericans to exercise their civil rights, and inspired other groups
to do the same.
2. The SitIn Movement: On February 1, 1960, a new tactic was added to the
peaceful activists' strategy. Four African American college students
walked up to a whitesonly lunch counter at the local Woolworth's store in
Greensboro, North Carolina, and asked for