❖ Understand the major problems left unresolved by the Civil War.
➢ The Civil War did not free blacks completely.
➔ African Americans were not officially free by the constitution until
December of the 1865 when 13th Amendment was passed
➔ The US government did not know what to do with these freedmen.
➔ African Americans had no land, no job and many of them probably no
where to live.
➔ They did not gain their citizenship until 1868, when the 14th
Amendment was passed.
➔ And they did not gain their voting right until the ratification of the 15th
➢ And the States’ rights are still a pretty controversial issue today.
❖ And the major problems caused by the Civil War.
➢ After the war, half of the country hated the other half.
➢ Lots of land in the South were been destroyed during the war.
➢ Whole country was racist toward the Blacks not just the South
➔ The Northerners did not want the Blacks to come to the North either,
they wanted to keep the Blacks in the South
❖ Understand the importance of land ownership in the postReconstruction
South and West.
➢ The number one failure of the Reconstruction was Land Reform.
➔ Blacks wanted to own properties, the LAND!, not just jobs.
➔ President Andrew Johnson gave the land back to the former owners.
➔ Some Blacks were been evicted.
➔ Most of the Blacks remain poor without the land, and still work for their
former owners for very low wages.
➢ The government did not want the Blacks to go the West either because they
think those land belong to the white people and they did not want to give
white people’s land to the Black.
❖ Understand the major divisions between Democrats and Republicans and
how the parties’ positions changed over time.
Old style Democrats Old style Republicans
1. Pro state governments 1. Pro federal government
2. Pro farmers & “little guys” 2. Pro industrialists & merchants
3. Rural 3. Urban 4. Concentrated in the South and the West 4. The North and the East
5. Deeply racist 5. Committed to emancipation
6. Against Tariffs and Gold Standard; 6. For Tariffs, Gold standard, and
For Inflation Deflation.
➢ The Democrats took the lead on this issue. They changed their position first,
to pro federal government which forced the Republicans to switch to the
➢ President Wilson is a Democrats, who believed in strong federal
❖ Understand the fraught notion of “freedom” in the American West.
➢ There is always more land in the West, if you can’t find the freedom you want
in the existing cities, you can always go west and create your own freedom.
❖ Understand the environmental constraints on farming in the American West.
➢ The land in the west was arid. Small farmers can’t afford the irrigation system
and all the machines.
❖ Describe the influence of large business interests in shaping U.S. society in
the Gilded Age.
class divisions literally become visible, where you live, wear, and do.
Although the rich, such as Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller were being
monopolies, they were responsible of the wealthy to participate in philanthropy and give
back to the society.
Because business are so big and their equipments are so expensive, they have to
operate continuously and it have a bad “human rights” record. In order to make profit,
these big companies had to pay the worker little wage and it caused many labor problem
❖ Understand the role of global depression in making labor dispensable.
1873: post war inflation on a global level leads to an economic panic made worse by
overspending on railroads, last till 1879. there are also revolution, wars on other countries
which make a lots people immigrate to U.S.., which make it worse by having foreigners to
compete for a job with natives.
Depressions create labor fluctuations. Due to the depression, many people lost their job
and they are willing to work for everything that is low wage just to support the family. labor
becomes disposable because so many people are willing the take the job.
❖ Understand the shift from skilled to unskilled labor and how it changed the bargaining position of the laboring classes.
Taylorism( scientific Management)
The devaluation of Skill Labor: there are only 15% of workers really had access to thisin
reality, standardization means a general dumbingdown of tasks as employees become
interchangeable, wages fall accordingly. Skilled workers became disposable. Due to the
fall in prices of some products and the skilled workers' rising standard of living after the
depression of 1929. They lost much of their enthusiasm and the movement suffered
Unskilled workers were willing to get the job that is low wage which caused the Skilled
worker lose their jobs during the depression because employers wanted to earn more
❖ Understand the changing role of the middle class and its role in American
A new type of middle class emerges: “white Collar” with increased professionalized,
bureaucracy, built on associational culture, highly suspicious of the laboring “mob”.
New products and technologies improved middleclass quality of life
middle class anxious to reform the abuses they perceived in American economic and
Without restriction, politicians were largely corrupt and ineffective.The middle class use
their money and power to control the society.
❖ Understand concepts of monetary deflation and inflation, and why farmers
were for the latter.
Monetary deflation: when asset and consumer prices continue to fall which means it worth
less money than it supposed to be.
Monetary inflation: The rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services is
rising. As inflation rises, every dollar will buy a smaller percentage of a good.
farmers prefer the latter because as the price goes up, it means they earn more profits
from their products.
they don’t like deflationary spiral because money they borrow worth more at the time it’s
due to be paid.
❖ Understand the economic circumstances that caused traditionally
antigovernment farmers to become proregulation (and therefore
progovernment). pp. 631
Small farmers faced increasing economic insecurity. In the South, the sharecropping system, locked millions of tenant farmers, white and black, into poverty. In the West,
farmers who had mortgaged their property to purchase seed, fertilizer, and equipment
faced the prospect of losing their farms when unable to repay their bank loans. .
Farmers believed that their plight derived from the high freight rates charged by railroad
companies, excessive interest rates for loans from merchants and bankers and the fiscal
policies of the federal government that reduced the supply of money and helped to push
down farm prices.
Through the Farmers alliance, the largest citizens movement of the nineteenth century,
farmers sought remedy their condition. The alliance therefore proposed that the federal
government establish warehouses where farmers could store their crops until they were
sold. Using as the crops as collateral, the government would then issue loans to farmers at
low interest rates, thereby ending their dependence on bankers and merchants.
❖ Sketch out the major regional differences in terms of farming, manufacturing,
industrial development, and politics.
The northern soil and climate favored smaller farmsteads rather than large plantations.
Industry flourished, fueled by more abundant natural resources than in the South, and many
large cities were established
Transportation was easier in the North, which boasted more than twothirds of the railroad
tracks in the country and the economy was on an upswing.
Northerners than Southerners belonged to the Whig/Republican political party and they
were far more likely to have careers in business, medicine, or education
The fertile soil and warm climate of the South made it ideal for largescale farms and
crops like tobacco and cotton.
Because agriculture was so profitable few Southerners saw a need for industrial
development. Eighty percent of the labor force worked on the farm.
As adults, Southern men tended to belong to the Democratic political party and gravitated
toward military careers as well as agriculture.
❖ Acknowledge the ways in which members of the AfricanAmerican
community continually fought for agency throughout Jim Crow.
NAACP ( National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) was formed . in
response to the continuing horrific practice of lynching and the 1908 race riot in Springfield,
the capital of Illinois and resting place of President Abraham Lincoln. The NAACP's principal objective is to ensure the political, educational, social and
economic equality of minority group citizens of United States and eliminate race prejudice.
The NAACP seeks to remove all barriers of racial discrimination through the democratic
It launched a strong struggle for the enforcement of the Fourteenth Amendment and
❖ Trace out the developments that caused the United States to turn from
traditional values of isolationism and towards the establishment of its own
1890s marked a major turning point in American expansionism. Ever since the Monroe
Doctrine, many Americans had considered the Western Hemisphere as American
* Monroe Doctrine: three parts
1. U.S opposes any further colonization by European powers in America
2. U.S abstains from involvement in wars in Europe
3. Europeans power not to interfere with new latin American States
Most Americans who looked overseas were interested in expanded trade not territorial
possessions. The country’s agricultural and industrial could no longer be entirely absorbed
at home. By 1890, companies like Standard Oil company aggressively marketed their
products abroad. Business leaders insisted on the necessity of greater access to foreign
Some group of Americans wanted to spread Christianity, prepare the world for the
second coming of Christ and uplift the poor.
Increased militarism in 1890s.
End of Spanish Colonialism in western Hemisphere.
❖ Describe the acceleration of U.S. imperialism after 1898, and which countries
(or world regions) are associated with U.S. intervention in the early years of
the 20 century. Foreign policies:
Open Door policy: policy supported by the United States beginning in 1899 that stated
that all major powers, including the United States, should have an equal right to trade in
Social Darwinism: philosophy that emerged from the writings of Charles Darwin on the
"survival of the fittest"; this was used to justify the vast differences between the rich and the
poor in the late nineteenth century as well as American and European imperialistic
SpanishAmerican War: war that began in 1898 against the Spanish over treatment of
Cubans by Spanish troops that controlled the island. As a result of this war, the United
States annexed the Philippines, making America a major power in the Pacific.
Yellow journalism: a method of journalism that utilizes sensationalized accounts of the
news to sell newspapers; this approach helped to whip up nationalistic impulses that led to
the SpanishAmerican War.
USS Maine: U.S. naval ship that sank in Havana harbor in February 1898 following an
explosion; the incident was used to increase calls for war against Spain. It was never
definitively determined why or how the ship was sunk.
Panama Canal: canal across the Panama isthmus that was begun in 1904 and completed
in 1914; its opening enabled America to expand its economic and military influence.
Roosevelt Corollary (1904): policy that warned Europeans against intervening in the
affairs of Latin America and that claimed the right of the United States to intervene in the
affairs of Latin American nations if "chronic wrongdoing" was taking place.
Dollar Diplomacy: foreign policy supported by President William Howard Taft and others
that favored increased American investment in the world as a way of increasing American
❖ Understand the major tenets of the Progressive “mood” and how it appealed
to both Democrats and the Republicans by the turn of the 20 century.
Work within existing structures of capitalism, not to overthrow, but make them more
humanity. Convinced that modern institutions could be made humane, responsive, and
moral. Corporate wrongdoing, muckraking journalism. Both Democratic(Wilson) and
Republican(Roosevelt) presidents expanded the power of federal government.
❖ Understand the timeline for the decline of partisan politics and the rise of
Partisan politics favoritism shown to members of one’s own party, faction.
After intense partisanship and highstates elections of the 1890s, campaigns become more “Educational” and less “Participatory” (Things were in changing in Progressive Era)
New model : Associational politics associationalism is used to refer to a political project
where human welfare and liberty are both best served. This happens when most of the
affairs of a society are managed by voluntary and democratically selfgoverning
AKA: More founding of associations that benefit people. ex: founding of NAACP, Salvation
Army, Sierra Club.
❖ Document the contradictions in Woodrow Wilson’s stated beliefs and the
actions he took under his own administration.
Wilson abandoned his idea of a noninterventionist national government. He
established Federal Reserve System in 1913, Federal Trade Commission,1914. Both
agencies strengthened the power of Federal government,
❖ Describe how intervention in Mexico affected U.S. behavior re: WWI.
A revolution in Mexico overthrow the U.S. friendly regime of Portifno Diaz. General
John J Pershing leads failed expedition into Mexico to capture Panocho Villa. Many
believe that U.S. should stay neutral in WWI, and take cares its own problem at home.
❖ Describe how wartime measures restricted American freedom back home.
WWI was the FIRST war to conduct a draft. Because of the fear of internal enemies,
Espionage Act(1917, which prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to
support U.S. enemies during wartime)
Sabotage Act(1918,which prohibited the speaking of the United States, its flag, or military
in a negative, influential, way)
both acts limited the freedom of individuals. Targets union leaders, esp. those in IWW. Also
a rise of propaganda.
❖ Understand the main thrust of Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the ideology
behind his WWI diplomacy.
Designed to prevent another Great War. Four themes of the idea:
1. National SelfDetermination
2. Freedom of the seas
3. Enforcement of peace by the League of Nations (Not ratified by the Congress in the end)
4. Open Diplomacy
❖ Understand the enormous costs of and changes caused by American
intervention in WWI.
➢ 116,516 Americans die within the 6 months. ➢ First American war to conduct a draft
➔ Many people escape the draft by going to Canada
➢ Many Factories turned to produce military used goods.
➢ States pass laws criminalizing “unpatriotic” activity
➢ Suppression of ethnic German
➢ Espionage Act 1917
➔ prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support
U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the
military, or to interfere with military recruitment.
➔ In 1919, the Supreme Court ruled that this act does not violate the
freedom of speech.
➔ Antispy basically
➢ Sabotage Act 1918 which prohibited the speaking of the United States, its
flag, or military in a negative, influential, way
➢ Women stand up for the jobs because men went to war.
➢ The Great Migration
➔ Many Southerners moved to the North.
➔ Over 500,000 Blacks moved to the North
➢ The Great Pile Up
➔ In 1918, Wilson nationalized the railroad,.
➔ Ended in 1920
➢ War Industrial Board
➔ Regulates price, manufacturing, and transport
➔ Led by Bernard Baruch
➔ “Dollarayear” men
➔ Give contracts to big Company
● favoritism and standardization
➔ Objection to “War Socialism”
➢ Rise of propaganda Key Term
1. 12year period after the U.S. Civil War where the southern state were rebuilt and allowed
back into the U.S. It is from 1865–1877.
2. The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was passed in 1868 to guarantee due
process and equality before the law for all citizens, including newlyfreed slaves.
3. The Fifteenth Amendment, in 1870, stated that the right to vote could not be denied on
the basis of race.
The Freedmen’s Bureau:
1. Assisting exslaves in the South
➔ It connected Northern philanthropists with Southern communities.to help create
schools and work training for Freedmen.
2. It was created in 1865 and last to 1870.
3. It aimed to serve as mediators in black/white disputes.
4. It ended under President Grant
1. A system of renting land that kept many Freedmen, poor farm workers after slavery were
made illegal.it caused many problems, such as contracts with white landowner,
2. Drought condition in 1866 put many African American