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Political Science
POL 2353

POL2353 Federalism- the division of power between the federal government and the states. (Ex: US) New federalism- a plan announced in 1969, to turn over control of some federal programs to state and local governments and institute block grants, revenue sharing, etc. (Ex: Different states will have its own separate governmental system) Divided government- situation in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of the United States Congress. (Ex: During Clinton’s term, the government was united the first two years and that latter 6 were not) Iron triangles- the relationship that exists between the different parts of government (Ex: The NRAcan lobby to block new gun control measures. This can become an iron triangle issue if politicians respond to the NRAlobbyists and block an initiative such as universal background checks, even if the initiative is supported by most voters.) Issue networks- coalition of interest groups and people who join together to advocate for a specific problem and for changing a government policy that pertains to that problem. (Ex: Social Security- Beneficiaries, providers, agencies, consultants, etc.) Logrolling- exchange of support or favors, especially by legislators for mutual political gain as by voting for each other’s bills. (Ex: Suppose that Geraldine and Hector get together before the subcommittee meeting and agree to do a little vote trading. Geraldine is willing to vote for Hector's favored program to buy new employee uniforms if Hector agrees to vote for Geraldine's plan to purchase new display cabinets.) Supremacy clause- A clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution that declares federal laws to have jurisdictional authority over state laws in the event there is conflict between laws established by two governing bodies. (Ex:Arizona governor, Jan Brewner, tried to come up with her own immigration laws, but the Constitution has the ultimate say, so the judicial branch ruled her out. ) Remedies- judicial order to enforce a particular policy in order to redress a wrong Agenda-setting- figuring out what issues are worthy of governmental intervention. The systemic agenda- made up of all the issues that merit public attention within the legitimate authority of government The formal agenda- set of items explicitly up for the active and serious consideration of authoritative decision-makers. Visible Participants- those who receive public attention. Hidden Participants- ACADEMIC SPECIALISTS, CAREER BUREAUCRATS, CONGRESSIONAL STAFFERS. MOSTLYAFFECT THEALTERNATIVES WHICH ARE PROPOSED Public goods- a good or service that is provided without profit to society. Impossible to control. Policy formulation- development of the mechanism for solving the public problem Think tanks- group of analysts or people who come up with policies. Selective distortion- a term that refers to the tendency of people to interpret information in a way that will support what they already believe. Clearance points (Pressman & Wildavsky)- it means the point in space and time where the commander or staff anticipates making a decision concerning a specific course of action. It is usually associated with a specific target. Policy succession (linear, consolidation, and splitting)- -Linear Succession- program stays the same, but the location of the policy changes.Administration stays, but is housed somewhere else. -Consolidation- several programs are merged into one larger department or program. (Ex: Dept. of Homeland Security) -Splitting- several programs that used to be housed under one department are split into multiple departments. (Ex: Department of Health and Education into two separate departments) Marbury v. Madison - The Supreme Court has judicial review over acts of Congress. This power allows the Supreme Court to declare those acts that fall outside the legislature’s enumerated powers unconstitutional. Griswold v. Connecticut The United States Supreme Court overturned the Connecticut law which forbade the use of prophylactics as contraception. The United States Supreme Court ruled that the state law was in direct violation of the right to privacy within a private setting. In addition, the United States Supreme Court explained that the 9thAmendment to the United States Constitution serves as protection with regard to the Bill of Rights. Because of the state’s violation of civil liberties and the unlawful expansion of government power, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Griswold. Brown v. Board of Education -Segregated public schools are not “equal” and cannot be made “equal,” therefore, the doctrine of “separate but equal” in public schools is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Lau v. Nichols -The Supreme Court of the United States in Lau v. Nichols ruled that public schools, based on the passing of the Civil RightsAct of 1964, must treat all students equally regardless of their language; therefore, student
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