Federalism- the division of power between the federal government and the states. (Ex:
New federalism- a plan announced in 1969, to turn over control of some federal
programs to state and local governments and institute block grants, revenue sharing, etc.
(Ex: Different states will have its own separate governmental system)
Divided government- situation in which one party controls the White House and another
party controls one or both houses of the United States Congress.
(Ex: During Clinton’s term, the government was united the first two years and that latter
6 were not)
Iron triangles- the relationship that exists between the different parts of government (Ex:
The NRAcan lobby to block new gun control measures. This can become an iron triangle
issue if politicians respond to the NRAlobbyists and block an initiative such as universal
background checks, even if the initiative is supported by most voters.)
Issue networks- coalition of interest groups and people who join together to advocate for
a specific problem and for changing a government policy that pertains to that problem.
(Ex: Social Security- Beneficiaries, providers, agencies, consultants, etc.)
Logrolling- exchange of support or favors, especially by legislators for mutual political
gain as by voting for each other’s bills.
(Ex: Suppose that Geraldine and Hector get together before the subcommittee meeting
and agree to do a little vote trading. Geraldine is willing to vote for Hector's favored
program to buy new employee uniforms if Hector agrees to vote for Geraldine's plan to
purchase new display cabinets.) Supremacy clause- A clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution that declares
federal laws to have jurisdictional authority over state laws in the event there
is conflict between laws established by two governing bodies.
(Ex:Arizona governor, Jan Brewner, tried to come up with her own immigration laws,
but the Constitution has the ultimate say, so the judicial branch ruled her out. )
Remedies- judicial order to enforce a particular policy in order to redress a wrong
Agenda-setting- figuring out what issues are worthy of governmental intervention.
The systemic agenda- made up of all the issues that merit public attention within the
legitimate authority of government
The formal agenda- set of items explicitly up for the active and serious consideration of
Visible Participants- those who receive public attention.
Hidden Participants- ACADEMIC SPECIALISTS, CAREER BUREAUCRATS,
CONGRESSIONAL STAFFERS. MOSTLYAFFECT THEALTERNATIVES WHICH
Public goods- a good or service that is provided without profit to society. Impossible to
Policy formulation- development of the mechanism for solving the public problem
Think tanks- group of analysts or people who come up with policies.
Selective distortion- a term that refers to the tendency of people to interpret information
in a way that will support what they already believe.
Clearance points (Pressman & Wildavsky)- it means the point in space and time where
the commander or staff anticipates making a decision concerning a specific course of
action. It is usually associated with a specific target.
Policy succession (linear, consolidation, and splitting)-
-Linear Succession- program stays the same, but the location of the policy
changes.Administration stays, but is housed somewhere else.
-Consolidation- several programs are merged into one larger department or
program. (Ex: Dept. of Homeland Security)
-Splitting- several programs that used to be housed under one department are split
into multiple departments. (Ex: Department of Health and Education into two separate
Marbury v. Madison
- The Supreme Court has judicial review over acts of Congress. This power allows the
Supreme Court to declare those acts that fall outside the legislature’s enumerated powers
Griswold v. Connecticut
The United States Supreme Court overturned the Connecticut law which forbade the use
of prophylactics as contraception. The United States Supreme Court ruled that the state
law was in direct violation of the right to privacy within a private setting. In addition, the
United States Supreme Court explained that the 9thAmendment to the United States
Constitution serves as protection with regard to the Bill of Rights. Because of the state’s violation of civil liberties and the unlawful expansion of government power, the United
States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Griswold.
Brown v. Board of Education
-Segregated public schools are not “equal” and cannot be made “equal,” therefore, the
doctrine of “separate but equal” in public schools is a violation of the Equal Protection
Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Lau v. Nichols
-The Supreme Court of the United States in Lau v. Nichols ruled that public schools,
based on the passing of the Civil RightsAct of 1964, must treat all students equally
regardless of their language; therefore, student