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Bio Lab Exam 1.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO 1105
Professor
Janet Bagby
Semester
Fall

Description
Ex. 41: Vertebrate Animal Tissues Epithelial tissue: 1. Protect underlying tissues from dehydration and mechanical damage 2. Provide selectively permeable membrane 3. Provide sensory surfaces 4. Secrete fluids  Simple: tissue in one layer o Classified according to shape  Stratified: multiple layers o Upper layer is squamous, middle cuboidal, and bottom columnar  skin o Pseudostratified: single layer that appears stratified b/c nuclei appear in different position within the columnar cells  Glandular: active metabolically o Liver, glands, and pancreas  Squamous: flat and irregular o Line lungs, kidneys, and major cavities o Passive movement of water, electrolytes  Cuboidal: roughly like cubes o Line respiratory and intestinal tracts and ducts o Often have cilia and secrete fluids  Columnar: tall and narrow o Same as cuboidal Connective Tissue  Proper: o Loose: cells scattered within an amorphous mass of proteins that form a ground substance o Dense: tightly packed collagen fibers; tendons o Fibroblasts: produce collagen (most commonly secrete protein and elastic fibers) o Reticulin: thin, branching fiber that supports spleen and lymph nodes and composes junctions b/w other kinds of tissues o Macrophages: immune system’s first defense against invading organisms  Special: o Blood: maintain proper pH and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide  Plasma: intercellular fluid matrix  Erythrocytes: classification of blood cells  Leukocytes: classification of white blood cells  Platelets: fragments of large bone marrow cells o Cartilage: found in skeletal joints  Chondrin: forms extracellular gelatinous matrix and keeps cartilage resilient  Chondrocytes: secretes matrix of chondrin and collagen o Lacunae: where chondrocytes reside o Bone: strong extracellular matrix of fibers  Collagen fibers surrounded by hard crystals of calcium salts rather than chondrin  Osteocytes: bone cells that maintain the fibrous and crystalline matrix  Lamellae: thin, concentric layers that form Haversien systems or osteons  Haversien canals: surround blood vessels and nerve cells o Cantaliculi: help with communication in bone cells Muscle Tissue  Actin and myosin filaments : work to contract muscles o Myofibrils: bundles of contractile filaments  Skeletal: also called striated; long fiber of regularly arranged contractile units with many nuclei scattered at the periphery o Strength and speed of contraction enhanced by coalesced cells into fibers  Smooth muscle: long and spindle shaped with single nucleus o Line walls of gut and blood vessels o Contract slowly and rhythmically  Cardiac muscle: striated but involuntary o Composed of chains of single, uninucleate cells  Intercalated disks: specialized junctions that organize these chains into continuous functional fibers Nervous Tissue:  Neurons: cells specialized in transmitting nerve impulses  Glia: support cells o Schwann cells: propagate nerve impulses and provide nutrients to neurons  Cell body: contains nucleus  Dendrites: short extensions that carry impulses  Axons: long extensions that carry impulses away from cell body Ex. 47: External Features and Skeletal System of the Rat External Features:  Dorsal: upper surface (back) o Ventral: lower back (belly)  Anterior: head o Posterior: tail  Cranial: head o Caudal: tail  Medial: midline o Proximal: end of the appendage nearest the body  Lateral: away from midline, toward side o Distal: toward end of appendage farthest away from body  Frontal plane: divides body into dorsal and ventral; parallel to anterior/posterior; perpendicular to dorsal/ventral (top and bottom) o Transverse plane: cross section perpendicular to anterior/posterior (through stomach) o Sagittal plane: divides body into left/right; parallel to anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral 1. Cranial region: head 2. Cervical region: neck 3. Pectoral region: area where forelegs attach 4. Thorax: chest region 5. Abdomen: belly 6. Pelvic region: area where hind legs attach  Pelage: hairy coat  Vibrissae: whiskers  Nares: nostrils  Subterminal mouth: has cleft in upper lip that exposes incisor  Nictating membrane: inside corner of eye that can be drawn across eye for protection  Pinna: external ear o Auditory meatus: ear canal  Plantigrade: stance where both the sole and heel of a rat’s foot contact the ground when walking o Digitigrade: walk on toes  Teats: 6 nipples lateral to midline  Scrotal sac: pair that lie on each side of the anus o Contain the testes which produce sperm cells  Prepuce: bulge of skin surrounding penis o Preputial orifice: where penis can be extended from prepuce through  Urogenital orifice: end of penis where urine and sperm exit the body Skeletal System:  Maxilla: upper jaw  Zygomatic arch:  Vertebral column: o Cervical: anterior 2 cervical vertebrae are atlas and axis o Thoracic o Lumbar o Sacral o Caudal vertebrae  Pectoral girdle: bones of the forelegs attach here o Pelvic girdle: bones of the posterior appendages attach here o Appendicular skeleton: composed of previous two  Integument: skin  Cutaneous trunci: thin sheets of muscle attached to skin  Brown fat: deposit of fat that is specialized for heat production if animal is stressed in low temperatures Ex. 48: Muscles and Internal Organs of the Rat Muscular System  Antagonistic: the way muscles are arranged in opposing pairs o Contracting one moves the body, contracting other restores body  Tendons: connective tissue that attached muscle to bones o Adhere to spines, knobs, ridges, and depressions on bones o Origin: end attached to bone that does not move during contraction o Insertion: end of the muscle attached to bone that moves  Extensors: increase angle of joint o Flexors: decrease angle  Abductors: move appendage away from midline of body o Adductors: move towards  Retractors: move an appendage backward o Protractors: move forward  Supinator: rotate palm or bottom of foot upward o Pronators: rotate downward  Biceps brachii: anterior of humerus o Origin of scapula to insertion of radius o Flexes lower arm  Triceps brachii: sides and back of upper arm o Humerus and scapula to elbow o Extends lower arm  Spinotrapezius: lays across dorsal thoracic region of rat o Thoracic vertebrae to spine of scapula  Acromiotrapezius: central muscle of the trapezius group o Cervical vertebrae to scapula o Moves he scapula dorsally  Latissimus dorsi: posterior to and partially covered by the spinotrapezius o Thoracic and lumbar vertebrae to medial side of humerus o Move the humerus dorsocaudad  External oblique: covers sides of abdominal cavity from hip to rib cage o Lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs to linea alba and pelvis o Compresses and retains the viscera and acts with the rectus abdominis to form a flexible ventral and lateral body wall  Cutaneous trunci: attaches to the skin on lateral and dorsal sides of body o Under the upper front leg to skin o Moves the skin  Biceps femoris: has two bundles and easily located on side of thigh o Ischium to distal portion of femur and proximal portion of tibia o Abducts the thigh and flexes the shank  Gastrocnemius: forms the bulk of the calf muscle in the lower leg o Distal end of femur Internal Anatomy:  Salivary glands: soft, spongy tissue o Sublingual: touch submaxillary glands on anterolateral surface o Parotid: extend behind the ear; usually beneath ear and between the jaw and points of the shoulders o Submaxillary glands: large, round, oval and elongate o Secrete saliva that lubricates food and contains amylase that degrades starch to maltose  Thyroid gland: gray or brown swelling on either side of the trachea o Sternohyoid: cutting through this exposes trachea to find thyroid o Thyroxin: major secret
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