FORS 3331 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Internal Carotid Artery, Parietal Bone, Maxillary Sinus

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FORS 3331
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Baker | FORS 3331 | Spring 2017 | Lecture 1 | Page 1
LECTURE 1: BASIC ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical position
Cranial/Cranium
Skull (Cranium + Mandible)
Postcranial/Postcranium
Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
Plane Terminology
Sagittal Plane - a plane that divides the body into left and right parts
Coronal Plane - a plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts
Transverse Plane - a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Directional Terminology
Keep in mind, all directional terminology is very relative
o The elbow is superior to the wrist which is, in turn, superior to the thumb
Vertical Axis
o Superior - higher than another body part
Above it along a vertical axis
o Inferior - lower than another body part
Below it along a vertical axis
Midline Axis
o Medial - towards the midline of the body
o Lateral - away from the midline of the body
Horizontal Axis
o Proximal - nearest to, closest to, or in proximity to the center of the body or torso
o Distal - further from, distant from, or further away from the center of the body or torso
Front/Back
o Anterior - in front of (or before)
o Posterior - behind (or after)
o Ventral - toward the belly-side
o Dorsal - toward the spine side
Mouth/Teeth
o The mouth has an arch shape which requires special terminologies
o Mesial - toward the midline between the front two teeth
o Distal - away from the midline between the front two teeth
o Lingual - lip-side
Usually reserved for the incisors and canines
o Buccal - check-side
Usually reserved for the molars and premolars
o Interproximal - between adjacent teeth
Area where you floss
o Occlusal - chewing surface of the teeth
Where uppers and lowers articulate
o Incisal - biting or occlusal edge of incisors
Not as good at grinding but it's the same idea as occlusal
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Baker | FORS 3331 | Spring 2017 | Lecture 1 | Page 2
Hands/Feet
o Palmar - palm side of the hand
Anterior side
o Plantar - sole of the foot
o Dorsal - back of hand/top of foot
Limb Movements and their Terminology
Basic Movements
o Flexion - bending that decreases the angle between body parts
At the shoulder and hip, flexion is forward movement
o Extension - straightening that increases the angle between body parts
At the should and hip, extension is movement backwards
o Abduction - movement away from the sagittal plane
At the hand and foot, abduction is movement of digits away from the midline
Like a child abduction - taken away from the body
o Adduction - movement towards the sagittal plane
Emphasize the add in adduction
At the hand and foot, adduction is the movement of digits toward the midline
Movement of the Forearm
o Pronation - rotation of the forearm turning the palm posteriorly
o Supination - rotation of the forearm turning the palm anteriorly
This returns the forearm and palm to anatomical position
"soup" - Oliver Twist turned his palms up to ask for soup
Movement of the Foot
o Dorsiflexion - flexion of the foot with the heel down and toes off the ground
o Plantarflexion - flexion of the foot with toes down and the heel off the ground
o Eversion - turning the sole of the foot outward
Pronation of the foot
o Inversion - turning the sole of the foot inward
Supination of the foot
Movement of the Head
o Circumduction - a combination of [abduction] + [adduction] and [flexion] + [extension]
Movement in a cone-shaped path
Mostly seen at the shoulder and hip
o Rotation - a body part turning on an axis
Ex. Radius
o Opposition - body parts brought together
Ex. Thumb and fingertips
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