[PSY 3330] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (30 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSY 3330
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Historical Context
1. Psychological Disorder
a. 3 aspects
i. Psychological dysfunction
1. For example, stage fright
2. Exists on a spectrum
ii. Personal distress or impairment
iii. Behaviors are atypical or not culturally expected
1. For example, the cultural significance of hearing voices
b. DSM definition
i. As a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction that are unexpected in
their cultural contest, with present distress, impairment of function etc.
c. View examples and try to come up with questions
2. History
a. The supernatural tradition
i. Abnormal behavior was associated with demon possession or spirits
1. Treated with exorcisms, torture, or crude surgeries
ii. Stigma was present against those who were accused of participating in
witchcraft
1. Typically, people who did not fit I with society
b. The biological tradition
i. Mental disturbances have a natural or physical cause (problems in the brain)
1. Get slide
2. Get picture
a. If one of these portions were out of whack this is what caused the
abnormality
ii. 1800's
1. Syphilis left untreated can cause general paresis and over time it would
affect the brain.
2. Louis Pasteur came up with the germ theory: that microorganism can
cause issues/disease. It then became the etiology of psychosis symptoms.
iii. Treatment
1. Etiology generally guides treatment
2. For example,
a. Insulin for diabetes was great but eventually they learned it can
cause a coma so it has to modulated
b. ECT is still used today and for those who do not have relief with
primary treatment at least nowadays
c. Prefrontal lobotomy- not used today
c. The psychological tradition
i. First time in which one's environment was considered to be a cause for
psychological issues
1. Discovered by Plato and Aristotle
ii. Moral therapy was the first psychosocial approach to mental disorders
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2
1. Treated them as normally as they could and not make them feel ostracized
but this did not last very long
iii. Asylum became the prevalent form of treatment because of increased
immigration they were not able to house everyone for Moral therapy. Dorthia
Dix an advocate, helped increase the amount of resources (hospitals) but the
care was not great.
iv. Mesmer 18th century
1. He was the 1st person to try to treat someone in a therapy approach
towards bodily fluids
a. Animal magnetism
b. Helpful and has become known as hypnosis- a state of deep
relaxation where a therapist can influence a person.
v. Breuer 19th century
1. He felt that after ppl talked about their experiences they felt a lot better or
a cathartic response
vi. Freud or Psychoanalytic theory
1. Human behavior is determined by unconscious forces. In those cathartic
responses, we are expressing it.
2. Structures of the mind
a. Id- primal instinct (eating), superego (moral side) and the ego (tries
to resolve the conflict b/w the id and superego, it also develops
defensive mechanism to protect itself from anxiety
3. Therapy goal was to bring it out, address it and heal from it. However, it
ended up just making what was hidden more apparent.
4. Led to the development of humanistic therapy by Carl Rogers, person-
centered therapy
a. Therapist provides unconditional positive regard all the time
d. Other perspectives- give examples
i. Behaviorism- id observable behaviors and improve them- what happens in the
mind is irrelevant
1. Classical conditioning (Pavlov and Watson)
a. Pair a stimulus with an event repeatedly a person will respond to the
stimulus
2. Operant conditioning
a. A type of learning in which behavior changes as a function of what
follows the behavior
i. Increase- reinforce decrease- no reinforcement or punishment
ii. Positive- added negative-take away
ii. Modeling/observational
1. Learning from watching and imitating other's behaviors
a. Can occur without reinforcement
iii. Cognitions
1. Cognitive therapy (Ellis and Beck)
a. Emphasize how people think about themselves and their
experiences has a major influence on how they feel and thus
psychopathology
b. Most commonly used today (CBT)
e. An integrative Approach - today
i. Defining and studying psychopathology from a biopsychosocial approach
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