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SOC 1305 Study Guide - Final Guide: Opiate, Representative Democracy, Endogamy

Course Code
SOC 1305
Study Guide

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Sociology exam 4
Manifest functions
o Knowledge
o Credentials
Latent functions
o Socialization
Hidden curriculum: unspoken and unofficial norms, behaviors,
and values
o Social mobility
Cultural capital: cultural knowledge that serves as currency
that helps to navigate a culture
Deviance: any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social
norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
o Crime: a form of deviance that violates criminal law and is punishable
with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions.
The biological context
o Caesare Lombroso
criminals could be identified by physical traits
o William Sheldon
body shape predicted criminality;
Ectomorph, endomorph, mesomorph
o Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck
powerfully built sons grow up less sensitive toward others
o No conclusive evidence linking genetics to criminality
o Typically offenders are 18-25yrs old
o Age crime curve: crime rate rises during adolescence and peaks in the
o Majority male
Social class
Victims of street crime
o Men
o Youth
o Minority
o Low income
Most crime statistics come from the uniform crime report (UCR)
o Published by FBI since the 30s
o Based on info from law enforcement agencies
National crime victimization survey
o Random survey of over 100,000 households
o Over 60% of all crimes are not reported to police
Crimes against the person
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Sociology exam 4
o Direct violence against a person
o Violent crime: actions involving force
o Hate crime: a criminal act against a person or property by an offender
motivated by racial bias
Crimes against property
Victimless crime
o No apparent victims
Occupational (white collar) crime
o Illegal acts committed by people in the course of their employment or
financial affairs
Organized crime
o Business operation that supplies illegal good and services for profit
Corporate crime
o Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corp
and with its support
Internet crime
Political crime
o Hilary
Functionalist perspective:
o There is nothing abnormal about deviance
o It exists in every culture
o it is universal
o Durkheim: it is a natural and inevitable part of all society.
o Deviance is not all bad for society
o Deviance affirms cultural values and norms
Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries and
promotes unity
Deviance encourages social change
o Too much deviance can be dysfunctional
o Deviance reflects social inequality
o People we commonly consider deviants share the trait of
o The norms of any society generally reflect the interests of the rich and
o Spitzer argues that deviant labels are applied to people who interfere
with the operation of capitalism
Symbolic Interactionist:
o Labeling theory:
Labels influence who becomes deviant and who doesn’t.
Primary deviance- little affect of self concept
Secondary deviance- deviant identity is taken on
o Differential association theory: one becomes deviant if one associates
with deviants
Social strain theory
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