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SOC 1305 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: George Ritzer, Gini Coefficient, Nepotism

Course Code
SOC 1305
Study Guide

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Group - any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who
share some sense of aligned identity
Aggregate - collection of people in the same place at the same time but share little else
in common
Category - number of people who may never have met but share a similar characteristic
social group - two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity
and a feeling of interdependence
primary group - small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face,
emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time
secondary group - larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-
impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time
ingroup - group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of
outgroup - group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may
feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
Reference groups - serve as point of reference in making evaluations and decisions-
Coercive organizations - Groups that we must be pushed or persuaded to join like
Rehab centers or Prison or mental hospital
Total institutions - What most coercive organizations are and they are one of which
inmates or military soldiers live a controlled lifestyle and in which total re-socialization
takes place
Formal organizations - highly structured secondary groups formed for the purpose of
achieving specific goals
Normative organizations (voluntary) - Based on shared interests like society's or clubs.
Joined voluntarily and are usually have rewards
Utilitarian organizations - Joined because the need for a specific material reward like
High school for diploma or workplace for money
Bureaucracy - Ideal Formal organization. Max Weber popularly characterized a
bureaucracy as having a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules,
and impersonality
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Bureaucratic ritualism - a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of
thwarting an organization's goals. Ex. Husband working for VA
Bureaucratic inertia - the tendency of the organizations to perpetuate themselves
Hierarchy of authority - aspect of bureaucracy that places one individual or office in
charge of another, who in turn must answer to her own superiors. CHAIN OF
Clear division of labor - the fact that within a bureaucracy, each individual has a
specialized task to perform. HOSTESS DOESN'T MAKE FOOD EX.
Explicit rules - the way in which rules are outlined, written down, and standardized.
Impersonality - personal feelings out of professional situations
Meritocracy - hiring and promotion is based on proven and
documented skills, rather than on nepotism or random choice. BASED ON MERIT
Robert Michels "iron law of oligarchy" - is the tendency to become a bureaucracy ruled
by the few elites
Global stratification - refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige
between countries
McDonaldization of society - Coined by George Ritzer. The principles that lie at the
base of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate more sectors of society and
more parts of the world. 1. Efficiency 2. Predictability 3. Calculability (quantity vs.
quality) 4. Non-human technology
Low Income Countries - Largely agrarian with little industry
Middle Income Countries - Some industrialization, but agriculture is still important
High Income Countries - Relativity rich, industrialized nations. Also Control the world's
financial markets
Relative Poverty - defining people as poor by comparing their income relative to other
people in society (rather than by whether resources are sufficient to obtain basic needs)
Absolute Poverty - measure of the minimum requirements needed to meet basic needs
(food, shelter, etc)
Gini Coefficient - the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country
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