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COMPLETE Aspects of Art Notes - Part 2 (got 90% on final)

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Boston College
Art History
ARTH 1109

Clues to Seeing Final Study Guide Scully “The Sacred Mountain” • Sacred mountain  structures created by people that looked like “mountains” and how they connected earth with the Gods. • These “sacred mountains” were used to appease the gods to allow for good weather conditions. Sumerian Ziggurat in Iraq (c2100 BC) • Why was this built here in a flat and dry area? o Astraight connection between the earth and sky (nothing else around). o Because flooding was unpredictable and harmful to Sumerians in that area this ziggurat was built to appease the gods so that “priests” could pray to the gods in hopes of them hearing their prayers. Akkadian Victory Stele of Naram-Sin (2300 BC) Relief Sculpture • Stele  commemorative marker related to accomplishments of rulers • Naram-Sin  leader of region inAkkaden o Sun and moon above Naram-Sin show that they are supporting the leader and that through the help of the sun and the moon Naram-Sin was victorious o Naram-Sin’s crossed arm  symbol of prayer/praise to gods Egyptian Victory Palette of King Narmer (2800 BC) Relief Sculpture • Shows the power and strength of King Narmer  smiting the man kneeling down; dead people in the underground  fear of the King • Narmer is victorious over the people of Lybia • Papyrus plant  plant that grows in northern Egypt near Nile River  shows how Narmer (from south) has conquered the northern region of Egypt; Egypt is now unified o Shows Narmer victorious over Northern people and shows connection between north + south o Nile river is very predictable • Bird of Prey (Horus) and Cow w/ Horns (Hather)  watching over Narmer (in his support) Egyptian Step Pyramid of King Zoser (2600 BC) • Tomb of King Zoser  to take everything with him for eternity; last for eternity • Meant to show eternity of him  live in the same tomb forever • Steps into the sky  use to go to and from sky  communicate with gods • Imhotep  creator of this step pyramid • Pyramid  powerful geometric form, triangle is the most stable shape (truss), lasts forever  symbolism of eternity and power Egyptian Pyramids and the Sphynx (2400 BC) • Sphinx  face of the pharaoh Qaffree (pharaoh’s tomb) o Half-male, half-lion  king of humans and animals o Supposed to protect the pharaoh’s tomb o Rah  the sun  highest form of deity  Sphinx faces the sun (Rah) to greet the gods • Pyramid  powerful geometric form, triangle is the most stable shape (truss), lasts forever  symbolism of eternity and power Pharaoh Hatshepsut’s Tomb/Temple (1480 BC) • Temple where people would come to praise Hatshepsut • The cliff represents the “sacred mountain”  rocks form a pyramid-like shape • Vertical lines of the columns that correspond with the vertical cliff and the horizontal top of the cliff corresponds with horizontal top to vertical lines harmonious setting as well as power Minoan Central Court of Palace with Bull’s HornsAltar [Palace at Knossos] (1500 BC) • Home of the King of Crete, Mino o Minoan people  through old legends • Palace built in conjunction with Jactos Mountain (in background) o Jactos Mountain  home of Gods Zeus +Apolo  born there • The altar (Bull’s Horns) is in direct line with the mountain o To protect against volcanoes  bulls caused the earth to shake  fear in bull o Toreador Fresco (1500 BC)  ceremonies for bulls and controlling the bulls. Elsen “Images of Gods” • Images of gods change as peoples’idea change • Less about the deity and more about the peoples’feeling at the time [Greek] Apollo and the Centaur (460 BC) Dynamic Form/Sculpture • Apollo  god of rational action, wisdom and controlled reason o Straight, emotionless face  represents his god-like attitude • Centaur  half animal, half human creature that behaves on instinct and not reason represents negative animal-like characteristics • Horizontal/vertical lines ofApollo  order, stability, and power • Curving/Diagonal Lines of Centaur  imbalance, motion o Overall Theme  suggests a hope/belief could/would help people through time of difficulty [Greek] Apollo Mantua (450-460 BC) Dynamic Sculpture • More human-like  human stance o Shift of weight  equalizing left and right side o More curved, organic lines  symbolize movement and growth o Asymmetrical balance  balanced but not identical Apollo Belvedere (330 BC) • Shift again to mere human-like features o More power in the humans than gods • 6 heads high is normal  thisApollo is 8 heads o More beautiful/idealistic depiction of a human o Hellenistic Movement  wealthy society  Gods were not viewed to be as powerful anymoreonly need wealth and elegance rd st [Indian] Great Stupa (3 century BC – 1 century BC) • Buddha was first depicted as a footprint, chair or stupa o Trace of something that was there but has gone • Stupa = hemisphere o Tranquility: stability + order o Sphere is completed underground  part of Earth  Buddha becomes part of Earth Buddha Delivering the First Sermon (475 BC) High relief sculpture • 1 depiction of human-like Buddha o To grasp more followers + competition with Hinduism • Symmetrical = peace, order, and perfection • Triangle shape of entire body o Primary geometric shapes in symmetrical order • Pleasing face = more attractive • No muscles = no depiction of power • No sharp edges = smooth transition of sculpture • Wealthy people would wear earrings  Buddha’s ear lobes are large o Shows that Buddha was once materially wealthy but now is not Sarcophagus of the Good Shepherd (4 century CE) • Sheep over the shoulder  Jesus as a good shepherd • Jesus was first depicted as a cross and fish o Indirect ways to depict Jesus  no human connection • This relief sculpture is a depiction of Jesus as a human o To attract more people; better connection to Christianity • What is the non-Christian perspective? o Church wanted to attract Romans  is why it depicts Jesus dressed as a roman peasant to make Roman pagans feel they can be part of the Church Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (4 century CE) • Vignettes depict scenes of Christianity + Hebrew Bible • Jesus looks like a Roman Senator/Politician o Jesus is part of the upper class • Jesus is also on a throne  like a Roman emperor o Sits upon Atlas  foot upon Pagan god casts down paganism • Jesus has risen in social stature  Emperor Constantine has legalized Christianity in Rome Lunette of the Good Shepherd (450 CE) • Italy began to be invaded from the North o Wealth, land, agriculture was in Italy • Shepherd image of Jesus  love, protection and salvation • 1) Shepherd and his flock  shepherd=Jesus; Flock = followers of Jesus 2) Paradise • Gold/purple clothing = depicts Jesus as an emperor • 1-point perspective  more real Christ between 2Angels and Saints Vitalis and Ecclesius (525-547 CE) • Sky is gold  it is in heaven • Jesus in the middle  seated on a throne • Gold/purple colors that Jesus is wearing  imperial colors (power) • No rules of perspective apply here o Jesus is not subject to laws of rest of the world; he is not human, distant figure o **The real world had become “nasty, brutish, and short”**  Invasion on Italy from the north o Church wanted to be the antidote St. Pierre Bell Tower, Mossiac France (11 Century) • Like a castle  for self-defnse • Why is this monastery built like castle? o Symbolically as a place of refuge, to get away from bad stuff • At entrance, Jesus is above sitting on a throne  4 gospels surround him monarch who rules outside of nature Notre Dame Cathedral (Coronation of the Virgin) (The Beau Dieu) , France (1225-1235) (Coronation of Virgin) (Le Beau Dieu) • Jesus behaving like a human  crowning his mother • Shows beginning of Jesus returning to earth  no longer flat or distant, not as divine but more human(he is a sculpture) o His face makes him appear human o Lines of his garment point to the Gospel o Strong stance  symmetrical, gives him authority • In order for a building as grand as the Notre Dame to be built, the people must have known they would be there for a long time • The building also shows they were excited about their faith and they had the money to build it. Which meant they were prosperous. Matthias Grunewald “Crucifixion” IsenheimAltarpiece (1510-1515) • Jesus has skin disease  outward manifestation of sin helped people relate to Jesus in the hospital o The image of the crucified Christ is pitted with plague-type sores, showing patients that Jesus understood and shared their afflictions. o Mary, mother of Jesus, is to the right  signifies anguish for dying Jesus (bad side) o John the Baptist on the left  signifies the sacrifice made by Christ (good side) • This hospital treated skin disease comforted patients • Martin Luther believed you didn’t need ___ to relate to Jesus Hartt “Art and Freedom in Quattrocento Florence” • In Quattrocento Florence, Italy, artists and patrons were intimately allied. o The artists, guild members, were concerned about the fate of their society (being invaded from the north) as well as aware of their limitations and dangers. • Influential growth of its ideals (creativity and craftsmanship would be able to defend itself)  reflected in the content and style of the early Renaissance. th Orsanmichele Florence, Italy (14 Century) • Orsanmichele was used for trade where people bought goods • Guilds were wealthy in Florence • Everyone was working/ prosperous  no time for military/ calm people o No army often threatened in Florence because there was $$ and no army Donatello “St. Mark” (1411-1413) • Why make sculptures when Florence is under attack? o Sculptures like St. Mark defined the unique ability of Florence to defend itself through creativity and craftsmanship • St. Mark’s face looks worried/ not in total control o Signifies the inner turmoil in Italy at the time • 1 time sculpture looks like a real body is underneath the garments bended knee o Reappearance to human features • Fabric of his garment is most likely wool  Donatello supported by Wool Guild • People were needed to volunteer for the army and fight invaders o Taxes were raised to pay the militias to fight o People would do this for their pride, nation and freedom  People were proud of their craftsmanship/creativity in Florence Donatello “St. George” (1415-1417) • Small compared to the space he is in; seems trapped in space  inner turmoil • Face seems to be small and looks wimpy  not powerful • Standing there contemplating about fighting the dragon (as depicted below) o Dragon stronger than him so he must outsmart it (Invaders from the Northern regions of Italy) (Dragon=Invaders; George=Florence) o This is the metaphor for Florence no power but has the brains to defend against invading armies****  hopes and dreams of Florence (open to public to see) Donatello “David” (1408-1409) (Michelangelo’s David) • Reflects the famous story of David and Goliath (David is victorious against the Giant David) o Standing on Goliath’s head (after he has defeated him)  shows power, human dignity, and completeness o Shows how Florence must face a “Goliath” (invading armies) and figure out a way to defeat these armies • Michelangelo: commissioned by Florence City Hall to stand in front of the building  remind people of Florence during inner turmoil o David holding the rock  closer to the moment of defeating Goliath  planning what how he is going to kill Goliath (same as Florence) o Vein from David’s right arm to top of the neck is almost pulsating  David is winding up to throw rock at Goliath Lorenzo Ghiberti “Gates of Paradise” (1425-52) • Ghiberti wins competition to make new bronze doors for Baptistery • Shows Renaissance style of art • The repeated apertures depict saints  are there to greet people o The ones at eye-level depict Ghiberti and the other creator real human individual included in the artwork (one of the first) • “Abraham” depicts spatial depth Ghiberti “Sacrifice of Isaac” (beginning of 15 Century) • Signifies that God does not want human sacrifice • Isaac = Florence;Angels come to save Florence  underdog is saved in the end Ghiberti “North Doors” (beginning of 15 Century) • Gothic style of art Masaccio, Masolino, Fillipino Lippi, Frescoes (1420-1480) Brancacci Chapel “Tribute Money” • Depicts Jesus and Peter  overall depiction of the first taxes being implemented in Florence • The money found in the fish's mouth could also be seen as an expression of how Florence's wealth came from the sea. • The central scene is that of the tax collector demanding the tribute. The head of Christ is the vanishing point of the painting, drawing the eyes of the spectator there. Both Christ and Peter then point to the left hand part of the painting, where the next scene takes place in the middle background: Peter taking the money out of the mouth of the fish. The final scene – where Peter pays the tax collector – is at the right, set apart by the framework of an architectural structure. o 1-point linear perspective is key to understand in this artwork o Masaccio uses chiaroscuro to depict who is bad/good o Tax collector is differentiated  outside Jesus’s + disciples circle; also wears different clothes. Boime “Iconography of Napoleon” • Major point of essay is seeing how the following artworks change over a period of time • It is the correlation between Napoleon’s life and political issues, to use art to mold public opinion of himself in his favor. th Antoine Gros “Napoleon on the Bridge atArcole” (late 18 Century) • This artwork depicts young Napoleon as an officer going into battle • Looks behind himself to check that his forces are following him (thinks they will desert him) o Shows the weakness of the situation o France had just come out of the Reign of Terror  other monarchies were afraid of the revolution spreading to topple governments, so they invade France o French soldiers fear the other armies  potentially flee the battle Jacques-Louis David “Bonaparte Cross the St. Bernard Pass” (early 19 Century) • Does not really depict a rational view of the world  not neo-classicism • Depicts Napoleon leading his army into the St. Bernard Pass • Napoleon dominates the scene: confident posture, diagonal lines of horse and Napoleon pointing  powerful, dignity • Manipulation of Napoleon o Achange toward a more powerful Napoleonhow he wanted to be depicted  early example of propaganda by Napoleon o 3 names of other conquerors  N. thinks of himself as a powerful conqueror • N’s head is higher than the horse’s head (shouldn’t be)  makes N seems more in charge Jean Ingres “Bonaparte as First Consul” (19 Century) • First Consul is a political title  depicts N wearing civilian clothes o N “I’m a civilian”  political leader now and as well as a military leader • Pointing to a document  “The Rights of Man”  in support of the population • Church in the window  1804 is right after French Revolution and the all the churches were destroyed o Shows how Napoleon created peace and brought Church back into society • The chair that his coat drapes over looks like a throne  could foreshadow how Napoleon would take over the throne and become emperor. th Jacques-Louis David “Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine” (19 Century) • Napoleon crowning his queen Josephine o Showing that he has the power and not the pope (who stands near him) o If pope was crowning the queen it would make Napoleon look less powerful th Jean Ingres “Napoleon on Imperial Throne” (19 Century) • Napoleon dominates the space he is in  powerful and dominant figure • Beautiful clothes Napoleon is wearing  wealthy • Napoleon takes on a god-like aspect  now along with being a military leader, civilian leader, political leader, emperor he is also a god-like figure. th Antoine Gros “General Bonaparte Visiting the Plague-Stricken at Jaffa” (19 Century) • This artwork depicts Napoleon visiting soldiers with the bubonic plague  touches cyst of soldier with no fear to possibly heal the soldier o Gros uses chiaroscuro to depict scene • Resembles an act of Jesus Christ o Has capacity to heal people as well as courageousness to visit soldiers/ immune from disease  gives Napoleon a divine quality  Light around Napoleon is very great  chiaroscuro th Gros “Napoleon in the Battlefields of Eylau” (19 Century) • Another depiction of Napoleon as being powerful and divine = spiritual + military leader o Above the horse’s head  power o Stretches his hand out to help  Like Jesus Christ • Army is invading Russia  army looks defeated and sick N “army travels on its stomach”  need food to sustain life • Overall depicts how even though Napoleon and his army are suffering he is still the victor (in reality France lost with 20% surviving) Jacques-Louis David “Distribution of the Eagle Standards” (19 Century) • Compared to loss with Russia this artwork displays a dramatic, uplifting feeling • The painting depicts how Napoleon is saluting these newly formed regiments that are showing their banners (with Eagle at the top) o It shows how even after the army was decimated in Russia, the army has been reconstituted • David uses gesture as an important theme in his works  here with Napoleon’s arm that salutes the regiments o Compared to David’s “Oath of the Horatii” (18 Century) Jean Ingres “Napoleon in his Study” (19 Century) • Depicts Napoleon in his study during the early hours of the morning after he had drafted the Code Napoleon as emperor he worked hard • He stands before us without any idealization of his body  getting old • His right hand tucked into his jacket is extremely noticeable • The sofa he has just pushed aside forms a powerful diagonal that now seems to pin him against the table o The furnishings around him seem to lock him into his work  prisoner of his domestic obligations and makes him neglect his troops o Depicts him as a passionate statesman  more humanized version of the emperor because of the opposition to him in England and the weakening military position Licht “Disasters of War” • Shows the perspective behind the conquered • Used motif poise the artwork in a way to give off expression o Goya used motif to express his artworks as photography Goya “Second of May” (19 Century) • Here it is easy to see that Goya really uses motif in a way to depict this artwork as a photograph o Peoples bodies are cut off at some points  photograph cuts off stuff o In the background there are just faces of people no bodies  perspective o Chaos  can’t tell who is the bad/good side o This is a small detail of a larger picture  photographs do this o No symmetry  Goya doesn’t try to make the painting look visually appealing, he wants to depict something that really happened th Goya “Third of May (19 Century) • Theme  human beast brought out in times of war • No real faces  anyone could be in this position; no faces on soldiers  killing machines • Motif  lines of the rifle align with victim, victim is bright  about the victim and not the soldiers (Spanish)  victim will join pile of dead victims • He drew this but didn’t release it in his lifetime because he wanted people to see and learn from the disasters of war so it would never happen again th Goya “One Cannot Look +And There is No Remedy” (19 Century) One Cannot Look And There is No Remedy • Rifles extending into the image  motif to express reality/photography • What makes it seem real? o Rifles extending into the image  we know that soldiers are holding those rifles but are not being depicted at the time o No answer to why these people are being executed  is always the question Goya “Why?” (19 Century) • We don’t know why this person is getting executed and tortured but we do know it is happening • Left + Right soldiers are pushing outward  instead of toward the center, away from the center  no real composition o Captures a moment in time  exactly like photography th Jacques Callot “Great Miseries of War: The Hanging” (17 Century) • Symmetrical unlike Goya’s works  tree in the middle, people are organized around the tree o Spears and fence in the background give off vertical lines  order, stability as well as a sense of power • Bodies hanging from symmetrical tree  more are to come • This is an organized description of a massacre  not like Goya who depicts chaos o People watching truly believe that these people deserve to die  in Goya we have no idea why they are being killed and don’t want them too th Goya “What More Must be Done?” (19 Century)
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