Terms for Mid-Term
1. Representational or Figurative work- when art attempts to represent what we
see in the world around us
a. Realism- the accurate depiction of the visible world
b. Idealism- transforming the real world into one that approximates one’s
ideas of perfection
c. Stylization-emphasizing design rather than exact representation when
working with natural form
d. **Abstraction**- simplification of real experiences. Extracting the
essence of real objects. Ex. Tree drawn very simply
2. Line-a mark or are that is significantly longer than it is wide
a. Positive vs. Negative- unfilled vs. filled space
b. **Contour Lines**- emphasize the form of an artwork and define its 3-
demensionality. Defines the outer boundaries of an object.
i. Mass, volume and visual weight
c. Eye lines
d. Decorative vs. Descriptive- provide surface embellishment vs. physical
nature of the object
e. Gestural lines-directly reveal the artists arm at work
3. **Form- 3-D areas or volume and mass**
a. Reliefs low vs. high reliefs
b. Frontal vs. Full Round form
c. Walkthrough Works
d. Closed vs. Open form
i. Positive and Negative Space
e. Static vs. Dynamic form
f. **2-D Illusion of Form** use of Contour Lines
ii. Shading and Modeling of Contour Lines brings out spatial
4. **Shape- defined to 2-D areas; flat surface**
a. Hard Edged vs. Soft Edged
a. How 2-D and 3-D space work in artworks and how they affect the
meaning of artworks
b. Placement of images on picture plane
c. One Point Perspective-the viewer’s eye line is to one point in space. Ex.
Picture of train tracks heading into the distance
d. Two Point Perspective-when parallel lines appear to diverge toward two
different vanishing points. Ex. Looking at the corner of a building or
intersection of two hallways
e. Three Point Perspective-when parallel lines converge upwardly as well
as to either side.
f. Atmospheric Perspective-representing the tendency of things in the
distance to be less sharply defined in form, hues and value contrast than
forms that are closer to use, because of the effect of atmospheric haze.
g. Point of View vs. Aerial View
6. Scale-often used to evoke awe and reverence. Experience is out of the ordinary.
7. **Texture**- surface quality; how it would feel if we touched it.
a. Actual texture
b. Simulated texture trompe l’oeil “deceive the eye”= when a visual
effect is so realistic that it totally fools our perceptions.
8. **Value**-relative lightness or darkness of an area.
a. Highlights-areas that light strikes most directly are the lightest
i. As contours curve away from the light source in space, the light
dims, making the surface appear darker, until it approaches a true
black in areas where light is fully blocked.
ii. Helps show the extent to which a form swells out and draws back
b. Local values-light and shade in the world as we see it
i. Full tonal range
c. Interpretive Values-when values are not handled realistically in art. Ex.
High Contrast works that only depict light and dark
d. Chiaroscuro “light and shade”- the depiction in a 2-D work of the
effects of light and shadow. Values are manipulated for their dramatic
e. High Contrast vs. Low Contrast
f. Reflectionscapture our attention
9. **Color**-immediate obvious aspect of a work of art
a. Hues-wavelength properties by which we give colors names such as “red”
b. Primary Colors- red, yellow, and blue
c. Secondary Colors- orange, green and purple; mixing of primary colors
d. Complementary Colors- colors lying opposite of each other on the
wheel most of the time produce a neutral gray when these are mixed
e. Saturation-measure of the relative brightness and purity of a color
f. Interpretive Color-color choices are guided by the artist’s intentset
emotional tone of a work. Ex. Picasso’s “The Old Guitarist”
i. Warm vs. Cool Colors
g. Monochromic, analogous and triad color scheme
h. Broken Colors- an area that might seem to be 1 color is in fact comprised
of 2 or more colors. Ex. Eugene Delacroix
i. Open vs. Closed Palette
a. Actual Movementkinetic sculpture
b. Illusion of Movement
c. Captured Moment
d. Change Through Time
11. Repetitionhas a powerful effect on viewer