ARTH1109 Study Guide - Final Guide: Acculturation, Gettysburg Battlefield, Randomness

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31 Mar 2014
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Scully “The Sacred Mountain”
Sacred mountain  structures created by people that looked like “mountains” and
how they connected earth with the Gods.
These “sacred mountains” were used to appease the gods to allow for good
weather conditions.
Sumerian Ziggurat in Iraq (c2100 BC)
Why was this built here in a flat and dry area?
oA straight connection between the earth and sky (nothing else around).
oBecause flooding was unpredictable and harmful to Sumerians in that area
this ziggurat was built to appease the gods so that “priests” could pray to
the gods in hopes of them hearing their prayers.
Akkadian Victory Stele of Naram-Sin (2300 BC)
Relief Sculpture
Stele  commemorative marker related to accomplishments of rulers
Naram-Sin  leader of region in Akkaden
oSun and moon above Naram-Sin show that they are supporting the leader
and that through the help of the sun and the moon Naram-Sin was
victorious
oNaram-Sin’s crossed arm  symbol of prayer/praise to gods
Egyptian Victory Palette of King Narmer (2800 BC)
Relief Sculpture
Shows the power and strength of King Narmer  smiting the man kneeling down;
dead people in the underground  fear of the King
Narmer is victorious over the people of Lybia
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Papyrus plant  plant that grows in northern Egypt near Nile River  shows how
Narmer (from south) has conquered the northern region of Egypt; Egypt is now
unified
oShows Narmer victorious over Northern people and shows connection
between north + south
oNile river is very predictable
Bird of Prey (Horus) and Cow w/ Horns (Hather)  watching over Narmer (in his
support)
Egyptian Step Pyramid of King Zoser (2600 BC)
Tomb of King Zoser  to take everything with him for eternity; last for eternity
Meant to show eternity of him  live in the same tomb forever
Steps into the sky  use to go to and from sky  communicate with gods
Imhotep  creator of this step pyramid
Pyramid  powerful geometric form, triangle is the most stable shape (truss), lasts
forever  symbolism of eternity and power
Egyptian Pyramids and the Sphynx (2400 BC)
Sphinx  face of the pharaoh Qaffree (pharaoh’s tomb)
oHalf-male, half-lion  king of humans and animals
oSupposed to protect the pharaoh’s tomb
oRah  the sun  highest form of deity
Sphinx faces the sun (Rah) to greet the gods
Pyramid  powerful geometric form, triangle is the most stable shape (truss), lasts
forever  symbolism of eternity and power
Pharaoh Hatshepsut’s Tomb/Temple (1480 BC)
Temple where people would come to praise Hatshepsut
The cliff represents the “sacred mountain”  rocks form a pyramid-like shape
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Vertical lines of the columns that correspond with the vertical cliff and the
horizontal top of the cliff corresponds with horizontal top to vertical lines
harmonious setting as well as power
Minoan Central Court of Palace with Bull’s Horns Altar [Palace at Knossos] (1500 BC)
Home of the King of Crete, Mino
oMinoan people  through old legends
Palace built in conjunction with Jactos Mountain (in background)
oJactos Mountain  home of Gods Zeus + Apolo  born there
The altar (Bull’s Horns) is in direct line with the mountain
oTo protect against volcanoes  bulls caused the earth to shake  fear in bull
oToreador Fresco (1500 BC)  ceremonies for bulls and controlling the
bulls.
Elsen “Images of Gods”
Images of gods change as peoples’ idea change
Less about the deity and more about the peoples’ feeling at the time
[Greek] Apollo and the Centaur (460 BC)
Dynamic Form/Sculpture
Apollo  god of rational action, wisdom and controlled reason
oStraight, emotionless face  represents his god-like attitude
Centaur  half animal, half human creature that behaves on instinct and not
reason represents negative animal-like characteristics
Horizontal/vertical lines of Apollo  order, stability, and power
Curving/Diagonal Lines of Centaur  imbalance, motion
oOverall Theme  suggests a hope/belief could/would help people through
time of difficulty
[Greek] Apollo Mantua (450-460 BC)
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Document Summary

Scully the sacred mountain : sacred mountain structures created by people that looked like mountains and how they connected earth with the gods, these sacred mountains were used to appease the gods to allow for good weather conditions. Commemorative marker related to accomplishments of rulers. Egyptian victory palette of king narmer (2800 bc) Relief sculpture: shows the power and strength of king narmer smiting the man kneeling down; dead people in the underground fear of the king, narmer is victorious over the people of lybia, papyrus plant. Plant that grows in northern egypt near nile river shows how. Imhotep creator of this step pyramid forever symbolism of eternity and power. Egyptian pyramids and the sphynx (2400 bc: sphinx. Face of the pharaoh qaffree (pharaoh"s tomb: half-male, half-lion king of humans and animals, supposed to protect the pharaoh"s tomb, rah. The sun highest form of deity.

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