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Anatomy Exam 2 Guide to Ligaments

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1300
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
ANATOMY EXAM 2: LIGAMENTS / FISSURES / SPACES LIGAMENT / FISSURE / SPACE DESCRIPTION Arcuate line Where inferior epigastric vessels enter rectus sheath Above the line 1.5 muscles (aponeuroses of external oblique and half of internal oblique) above rectus abdominis and 1.5 muscles (aponeuroses of half of internal oblique and transversus abdominis) beneath rectus abdominis Below the line All 3 aponeuroses of 3 above muscles are above the rectus abdominis muscle Camper’s fascia Fatty (superficial) outer layer Scarpa’s fascia Membranous (deep) inner layer Deep (internal) inguinal ring Entrance to inguinal canal Transmits the spermatic cord (male) and round ligament of the uterus Bound by lower margin of transversalis fascia, below and inferiorly by internal epigastrics Inguinal canal Formed by the 3 abdominal muscles (both obliques and transversus abdominis) Passage to anterior conveying the spermatic cord and round ligament Above medial inguinal ligament superior wall (roof): internal oblique transversus abdominis anterior wall: aponeurosis of external oblique aponeurosis of internal oblique posterior wall: transversalis fascia conjoint tendon inferior wall (floor): inguinal ligament lacunar ligament One way to remember these structures is with the mnemonic "MALT", starting at the top and going counterclockwise: * M - muscles * A - aponeuroses * L - ligaments * T - transversalis/tendon Contents Spermatic cord/round ligament Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve Ilioinguinal nerve (doesn’t pass through deep ring; instead joins between transversus abdominis and internal oblique) Inguinal ligament Band running from pubic tubercle to anterior superior iliac spine Important for hernia patients Base of inguinal canal; what NAVL courses under Linea alba Fibrous structure down abdominal line (White) formed by fusion of aponeuroses of abdominal muscles Contains NO nerves/blood vessels Round ligament of the uterus Passes through deep inguinal ring  inguinal canal  labia majora Aka ligamentum teres Spermatic cord Passes through inguinal canal and leads to testes Layers External spermatic fascia (continuation of external oblique aponeurosis) Cremaster muscle (cont of internal oblique muscle) Internal spermatic fascia (from transversalis fascia) 1 Tunica vaginalis (parietal/visceral) Tunica albuginea Contents Testicular artery Deferential artery Cremasteric artery Nerve to cremaster (genital branch of genitofemoral nerve), sympathetics Vas deferens Pampiniform plexus Lympathics Remnant of processus vaginalis Superficial (external) inguinal ring Opening in external oblique aponeurosis Medial and lateral crus – margins of aponeurosis open to ring: lateral/inferior crus = stronger and curved for spermatic cord to rest on; medial/superior = broad/thin/flat Intercrural fibers – span across crura to prevent crura from spreading apart Median umbilical ligament Obliterated urachus (embryonic structure) In median umbilical fold Medial umbilical ligament Lateral paired structure Remnant of fetal umbilical artery Covered by medial umbilical fold Anterior abdominal wall Conjoint tendon Fusion of internal oblique aponeurosis with transversus abdominis aponeurosis Deep to inguinal canal Oblique fissure On both lungs Transverse/horizontal fissure On right lung (lobes = superior, middle, inferior) NOT on left lung (lobes = inferior and superior) Ligamentum arteriosum Remnant of embryonic ductus arteriosus Connects left pulmonary artery to aortic arch Recurrent left laryngeal nerve branches and wraps under ligamentum arteriosum Pleural recesses Costomediastinal Potential space at border of mediastinal pleura and costal pleura Costondiaphragmatic Potential space at posteriormost tips of pleural cavity at junction of costal and diaphragmatic pleuras Parietal pleura Costal Mediastinal Diaphragmatic Cupula (cervical) Oblique pericardial sinus Cul-de-sac posterior to heart Transverse pericardial sinus Posterior to pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta; fingers emerge between superior vena cava and aortic arch Moderator (septomarginal trabecula) band Contains part of right bundle of conducting system that stimulates anterior papillary muscle Muscular band of heart tissue in right ventricle Pulmonary ligament Mesenteric fold where root of lung is covered by pleura at its lowest border Stabilizes lung in thorax and transmits lymph vessels from inferior lobe to mediastinum Gastrosplenic ligament Derived from dorsal mesogastrium Part of greater omentum and is made of peritoneum Connects greater curvature of stomach with hilum of spleen Peritoneal gutters Right paracolic – lateral gutter that conducts fluid from omental bursa to pelvis (rectovesical pouch in male and rectouterine pouch/of Douglas in female) Left paracolic – lateral; bound cranially by prenicolic ligament Gutters to right and left of mesentery – left gutter opens into pelvis; right gutter closed caudally and cranially “Ligamen
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