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Anatomy Exam 2 Study Guide (got 94% on exam)

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BIOL 1300
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ANATOMY EXAM 2 MUSCLE REVIEW MUSCLES (14) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature External and innermost Elevate the ribs during Intercostals Intercostals intercostals inspiration Intercostals nerves arteries Internal intercostals Aid in expiration Transverses thoracis Depress ribs Internal thoracic artery External oblique Compress abdominal contents Bilateral contraction – flexes Musculophrenic trunk Intercostal nerves T7- artery Alone – flexes vertical column T11 Superior epigastric laterally and brings shoulder of Subcostal nerve T12 artery same side forward Rectus abdominis Flexes trunk Superior epigastric Tenses anterior abdominal wall artery Depresses the ribs Internal oblique Compress abdominal contents Intercostal nerves T7- Bilateral contraction – flexes T11 Musculophrenic trunk Subcostal nerve T12 artery Abdominal Alone – flexes vertical column Iliohypogastric and Superior epigastric laterally and brings shoulder of ilioinguinal nerves (L1) artery opposite side forward Cremaster muscle Draws the testes upward Genital branch of Cremasteric artery genitofemoral nerve (L1- (branch of inferior L2) epigastric) Transversus abdominis Supports abdominal wall Intercostals nerves 7-12 Musculophrenic Aids forced expiration and Iliohypogastric nerve artery raising intra-abdominal Ilioinguinal nerve Superior epigastric pressure Genitofemoral nerve artery Qaudratus lumborum Fixes 12 rib during inspiration Subcostal nerve (T12- Lumbar artery and flexes trunk laterally L3) Iliolumbar artery Subcostal artery Psoas major Flexes thigh and trunk at the Lumbar plexus (L1-3) Lumbar artery hip Iliolumbar artery Subcostal artery Iliacus Flexes thigh and trunk at hip Femoral nerve (L2-4) Iliolumbar artery Lumbar plexus Thoracic Diaphragm Inspiration Phrenic nerve (C3-5) Musculophrenic Assists in raising intra- artery abdominal pressure Levator ani Supports and slightly raises the Perineal branch of pelvic floor pudendal nerve Pelvic Ventral rami of S3-4 Inferior gluteal Coccygeus Supports pelvic floor Ventral rami of S4-5 artery Draws coccyx forward after being pushed back during parturition or defecation MNEUMONICS/STUDY TIPS THORACIC & ABDOMINAL WALLS - Evidence of trauma or old surgical scars o Subcostal incision on right side is used for cholecystectomy o Spleen is accessed through left subcostal incision o Suprapubic incisions allow acces to pelvic organs for C-section or hysterectomy o Oblique incision around meeting point of umbilical and right inguina regions is used for appendectomy o Incisions in either inguinal region can indicate previous hernia operations 1 o Linea albicantes (white stretch marks) can be found on obese people and females with previous pregnancies - Branching of the internal thoracic artery o Musculophrenic artery  Runs lateral  Follows costal arch  Supplies pericardium, diaphragm, muscles of abdominal wall o Superior epigastric artery  Descends medially behind rectus abdominis muscle within rectus sheath  Supplies diaphragm, peritoneum, anterior abdominal wall - Muscles of respiration: EI/IE o External intercostals – active Inspiration o Internal intercostals – active Expiration - Superficial fascia: Campers go outside o Camper’s layer = outer layer – superficial fatty layer of the superficial fascia o Scarpa’s layer = deep layer - Directions of abdominal and thoracic muscles o Direction of muscle fibers for obliques = direction fo fibers for intercostals o External – forward and down o Internal – forward and up - Muscles of respiration o Abdominal muscles involved in active expiration include  Rectus abdominis  Internal obliques  External obliques  Transverses abdominis - Cremasteric reflex o When skin on inner side of thigh is scratched, testicle on same side should be drawn upward - Contents of the inguinal canal o Spermatic cord (male) / round ligament (female) o Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve o Ilioinguinal nerve  Runs through part of the inguinal anal and superficial inguinal ring  Does not pass through the deep inguinal ring  Joins rest of the contents between the transverses abdominis and the internal oblique muscles - Inguinal hernias o Indirect hernias  Hernias through the inguinal canal  Located lateral to inferior epigastric vessels o Direct hernias  Medial to inferior epigastric vessels o Mneumonic: MDs don’t LIe  Medial = Direct  Lateral = Indirect  INdirect goes INto scrotum and can occur in INfants from a failure of the processus vaginalis to close - Arterial anastomoses o Superior and inferior epigastric arteries anastomose o Provides collateral circulation between the subclavian and external iliac arteries (inferior epigastric artery enters external iliac artery) LAB 2: THORACIC CONTENTS - Recurrent laryngeal nerves o Left – hooks around aortic arch o Right – hooks around right subclavian artery - Ligamentum arteriosum o LA = remnant of fetal ductus arteriosus – shunts blood from left pulmonary artery to aorta, so bypasses lungs which are not used in fetus; closes soon after birth o Patent ductus arteriosus – when DA doesn’t close (patent = open) - Coronary arteries and branches 2 o Right coronary artery  Sinuatrial nodal branch  Marginal artery  Posterior interventricular/descending atery o Left coronary artery  Anterior interventricular artery (LAD)  Circumflex artery - Right dominant o Right coronary artery supplies inferior portion of left ventricle via posterior descending artery - Sinuatrial nodal branch o Anterior right atrial artery gives off nodal branch – supplies blood to SA node (pacemaker) o When nodal branch is occluded  sinus arrest , sinus block, or cardiac arrhythmias result - Coronary artery anatomy o Coronary arteries fill during diastole o Coronary artery occlusion usually occurs in LAD - Fossa ovalis o FO = re
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