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Exam 1 review guide with muscle actions

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1300
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

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ANATOMY EXAM 1 REVIEW – MUSCLES, JOINTS, LIGAMENTS BACK MUSCLES (11) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Trapezius rotate scapula; Accessory n. (CN XI) Transverse elevate, retract shoulder cervical a. Superficial (5) Latissimus dorsi extend, ADduct, medially rotate Thoracodorsal n. Thoracodorsal a. humerus Rhomboideus major retract and rotate scapula, fix scapula to thoracic wall Dorsal scapular n. Dorsal scapular a. Rhomboideus minor “” Levator scapulae elevate, rotate scapula Serratus posterior superior elevate ribs on inspiration 2 – 5 Intercostal n. Intercostal a. Intermediate (2) Serratus posterior inferior ribs down, out on inspiration VPR T9 – T12 Splenius capitis laterally bend neck to ipsilateral side; extend head, Dorsal rami of spinal n. neck in conjunction Deep (4) Splenius cervicis “” Semispinalis extend neck; rotate head Dorsal rami of cervical spinal n. Erector spinae: extend vertebral column, Dorsal rami of respective Lateral sacral a. Iliocostalis bend laterally spinal n. Lonigissimus Spinalis SHOULDER & PECTORAL REGION (11) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Shoulder (7) Deltoid flex, extend, ABduct humerus Axillary n. Thoracoacromial a. (deltoid branch) Supraspinatus ABduct humerus Suprascapular n. Anastomoses from subclavian or axillar a. Infraspinatus laterally rotate humerus Suprascapular n. Teres minor “” Axillary n. that include: Teres major ADDuct, extend, medially rotate Lower subscapular n. Suprascapular a. humerus Dorsal scapular a. Subscapularis medially rotate humerus Upper & lower Circumflex scapular a. subscapular n. Omohyoid depress hyoid bone Cervical n. C1-C3 via ansa cervicalis Pectoralis major ADduct, medially rotate, extend, Lateral & medial Thoracoacromial a. flex humerus pectoral n. (pectoral branches) Pectoral region (4) Pectoralis minor protract, depress scapula Medial pectoral n. Serratus anterior protract, rotate scapula Long thoracic n. Lateral thoracic a. Subclavius depress scapula Subclavian n. Thoracoacromial a. (clavicular branch) ARM (5) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Coracobrachialis flex, ADduct arm Anterior (3) Biceps brachii flex arm, forearm; Musculocutaneous n. Brachial a. & its (long, short) supinate forearm branches Brachialis flex forearm Triceps brachii extend arm, forearm Posterior (2) (long, lateral, medial) Radial n. Profunda brachii a. Anconeus extend forearm FOREARM (20) 1 Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Pronator teres pronate, flex forearm Median n. Ulnar a. & radial a. Flexor carpi radialis flex hand, ABduct wrist Anterior (superficial – 5) Flexor carpi ulnaris flex, ADduct wrist Ulnar n. Ulnar a. Flexor digitorum flex PIP; flex MP superficialis Median n. Palmaris longus flex wrist; tighten palmar aponeurosis Flexor digitorum flex DIP of digits Medial: ulnar n. Anterior (deep – 3) profundus Lateral: median n. Anterior interosseus Pronator quadratus pronate forearm Anterior interosseus a. Flexor pollicis longus flex IP of thumb n. of median n. Brachioradialis flex forearm Radial recurrent a. Extensor carpi radialis extend, ABduct wrist; Radial n. Radial a. longus fist clenching Extensor carpi radialis “” Deep branch of Radial a. brevis radial n. Supinator supinate forearm, rotate radius Radial recurrent a. Posterior (12) Extensor carpi ulnaris extend, ADduct wrist Ulnar a. Extensor digitorum extend MP of digits; extend IP Abductor pollicis longus extend IP, ABduct, extend thumb Posterior interosseus Posterior interosseus Extensor pollicis longus extend IP thumb, ABduct, n. of radial n. a. from common extend thumb interosseous a. Extensor pollicis brevis extend MP and MCP of thumb, branch from ulnar a. ABduct, extend thumb Extensor indices extend 2 digit Extensor digiti minimi extend MP 5 digit; extend IP HAND (19) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Thenar (3) Abductor pollicis brevis ABduct/oppose thumb Superficial palmar branch Flexor pollicis brevis flex thumb Recurrent branch of of the radial a. Opponens pollicis oppose, medially rotate median n. thumb Hypothenar (3) Abductor digiti minimi ABduct 5 digit th Flexor digit minimi flex MPC of 5 digit Deep branch of ulnar n. Ulnar a. brevis Opponens digiti minimi oppose 5 digit to thumb Lumbrical 1 + 2 flex MPC joint; Median n. Superficial palmar arch extend IP joint Deep palmar arch Short (Palmar – 9) Common palmar digital a Dorsal digital a. Lumbrical 3 + 4 “” Deep branch of ulnar n. Superficial palmar arch Deep palmar arch Common palmar digital a Dorsal digital a. Palmar interossei (1-3) ADduct digits; Dorsal metacarpal a. & flex MCP joint; palmar metacarpal a. extend IP joint Palmaris brevis improves grip Superficial branch of Palmar branches of the ulnar n. ulnar a. Adductor pollicis ADduct thumb Deep branch of ulnar n. Deep palmar arterial arch Short (Dorsal – 4) Dorsal interossei (1-4) ABduct digits; Deep branch of ulnar n. Dorsal metacarpal a. & flex MCP joint; palmar metacarpal a. extend IP joint 2 GLUTEAL REGION (8) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Gluteal Region (8) Gluteus maximus extend, laterally rotate thigh Inferior gluteal n. Superior a. & inferior gluteal a. Gluteus medius ABduct, medially rotate thigh Superior gluteal n. Superior gluteal a. Gluteus minimus “” Piriformis laterally rotate thigh Ventral rami of S1 and Inferior gluteal a. S2 Internal pudendal a. Obturator internus “” Nerve to obturator Superior gluteal a. Superior gemellus “” internus Inferior gemellus “” Nerve to quadratus Inferior gluteal a. Quadratus femoris “” femoris THIGH (16) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Iliopsoas flex thigh; flex and laterally Femoral n. (for iliacus) Lumbar branch of bend lumbar spine & lumbar plexus iliopsoas branch of (psoas) internal iliac a. Pectineus flex, ADduct, laterally rotate Femoral n. & obturator Medial circumflex thigh at hip n. femoral branch of femoral a. & obturator a. Sartorius flex, ABduct, laterally rotate hip; Femoral a. branches Anterior (7) flex, medially rotate knee Rectus femoris flex hip; extend knee Medial circumflex (quadriceps) femoral a. Femoral n. Vastus lateralis extend leg at knee Lateral circumflex (quadriceps) femoral a. Vastus medialis “” Femoral a. (quadriceps) Profunda femoris a. Superior medial genicular branch of popliteal a. Vastus intermedius “” Lateral circumflex (quadriceps) femoral a. Gracilis flex, ADduct, thigh at hip; flex, medially rotate knee Obturator n. Medial (5) Obturator externus laterally rotate, ADuct hip; holds Obturator a. head of femur in acetabulum Adductor longus flex, ADduct thigh at hip Adductor brevis flex, extend, ADduct, laterally rotate thigh at hip Adductor magnus ADduct thigh; adductor – flex Obturator n. & tibial n. thigh; hamstring – extend thigh Semimenbranosus extend thigh; (hamstrings) flex, medially rotate leg Posterior (3) Semitendinosus “” Perforating branches of: (hamstrings) Tibial n. Profunda femoris a. Biceps femoris extend thigh; Inferior gluteal a. (long head) flex, laterally rotate leg Superior branches of (hamstrings) popliteal a. Biceps femoris flex, laterally rotate leg Common fibular n. (short head) N/a Tensor fasciae latae ABduct, medially rotate, flex Superior gluteal n. Superior gluteal a. thigh Lateral circumflex femoral a. 3 LEG (13) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Tibialis anterior dorsiflex ankle; invertstoot Extensor hallucis longus dorsiflex ankle; extend 1 digit Anterior (4) Extensor digitorum longus dorsiflex ankle; extend 2 – 5 digit Deep fibular Anterior tibial a. Fibularis tertius dorsiflex ankle; n. evert foot Lateral (2) Fibularis longus evert foot; weak plantarflexion of ankle Superficial Branches of Fibularis brevis “” fibular n. fibular a. Soleus plantarflex ankle; raise heal to walk Posterior (superficial Gastrocnemius flex leg; – 3) plantarflex foot Plantaris “” Tibial n. Posterior tibial a. Tibialis posterior plantarflex ankle; invert foot Posterior (deep – 4) Flexor digitorum longus flex digits 2 – 5, plantarflex ankle, supports long arch st Flexor hallucis longus flex 1 digit; plantarflex ankle; support med long arch of foot Popliteus weakly flex knee; rotate femur on fixed tibia and unlocks leg; medially rotate tibia of unplanted limb FOOT (18) Grouping Muscle Action Innervation Vasculature Flexor (layer 1) (3) Flexor digitorum brevis flex digits 2 – 5 Medial plantar n. Medial plantar a. Abductor hallucis ADduct 1 digit; support transverse arch th Abductor digiti minimi ABduct, flex 5 digitst Lateral plantar n. Lateral plantar a. Flexor (layer 2) (6) Flexor hallucis brevis flex proximal phalanx 1 digit Medial plantar n. Medial plantar a. Lumbrical 1 flex PIP; extend DIP digit 2 – 4 Lumbrical 2 “” Lumbrical 3 “” Lateral plantar n. Lateral plantar a. Lumbrical 4 “” Quadratus plantae flex digits 2 – 5 Adductor hallucis ADduct 1 digit; (transverse head) support transverse arch Deep branch of Adductor hallucis lateral plantar n. (oblique head) Lateral plantar a. Flexor (layer 3) (2) Flexor digiti minimi plex proximal phalanx 5 digit Superficial branch of brevis lateral plantar n. Flexor (layer 4) (7) Plantar interossei (1-3) ADduct digits 2 – 4; flex MP Lateral plantar n. Dorsal interossei (1-4) ABduct digits 2 – 4; flex MP MNEUMONICS / STUDY TIPS THE BACK - Lateral to medial orientations of erector spinae: I Love Spine o Iliocostalis 4 o Longissimus o Spinalis - Lumbar puncture: L3, 4, 5, keeps the spinal cord alive o Insert needle between L3/L4 or L4/l5 during procedure SHOULDER & PECTORAL REGION - Venous drainage o Dorsal venous network of hand runs laterally into cephalic vein and medially into basilic vein o Median cubital vein proximally connects basilic and cephalic veins – located in cubital fossa o Dorsal venous network distally connects cephalic and basilic veins o Basilic and cephalic veins drain into axillary vein - Quadrangular space = axillary nerve + posterior circumflex humeral artery (QAP) o Borders  Lateral and long heads of triceps brachii  Teres major  Teres minor - Triangular Interval = Radial nerve & profunda brachial artery o Borders  Lateral and long heads of triceps brachii  Teres major (superior)  Humerus (floor) - Triangular Space = circumflex scapular artery o Borders  Teres minor  Teres major  Long head of tricepss brachii  Surgical neck of humerus - Rotator cuff muscles: SITS o Supraspinatus o Infraspinatus o Teres minor o Subscapularis - Scapular anastomoses for collateral circulation in shoulder region – important vessels: o Thyrocervical trunk branches specifically o Dorsal scapular artery o Circumflex scapular artery o Subscapular artery AXILLA, ARM & CUBITAL FOSSA - Branches of the axillary artery: Susie Thompson Likes Salt And Pepper o Superior thoracic artery o Thoracoacromial artery o Lateral thoracic artery o Scapular circumflex artery o Anterior circumflex humeral artery o Posterior circumflex humeral artery - Parts of the brachial plexus: Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer o Rami – ventral primary rami (C5 – T1) o Trunks – superior, middle, inferior o Divisions – anterior, posterior o Cords – lateral, posterior, medial o Branches - Radial nerve innervation: BEST o Brachioradialis o Extensors of wrist and fingers o Supinator 5 o Triceps - Compartmentalization of arm o Anterior/Posterior divisions made by humerus and medial and lateral intermuscular septa formed by brachial fascia (continuation of pectoral, axillary, and deep fascia of the latissimus dorsi and deltoids) o Anterior  Flexors of arm or forearm  Musculocutaneous nerve innervates all structures of the arm (not talking about forearm) o Posterior  Extensors of arm or forearm  Radial nerve innervates extensors of arm and forearm  Profunda brachii artery - The median nerve does not innervate any muscles in the arm – it gives off the anterior interosseus nerve in the cubital fossa - Musculocutaneous nerve o Innervates all muscles of anterior compartment of arm o Pierces supinator - Ulnar nerve o Passes through arm but does not supply any muscles in arm (not talking about forearm) o Passes posterior to humerus at medial epicondyle o Funnybone – blow to medial epicondyle and hence the ulnar nerve - Brachial artery o Continuation of axillary artery distal to inferior border of teres major o Gives rise to profunda brachii, superior & inferior lateral branches, ulner artery, radial artery, and other muscular branches - Profunda brachii artery o Highest branch of brachial artery o Travels with radial nerve o Anastomosis with posterior circumflex humeral artery - Radial nerve o Observed also through cubital fossa in plane between brachioradialis and brachialis muscle FOREARM AND HAND - Anatomical snuff box o Formed by abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and extensor pollicis longus o Contents  Radial artery  Cephalic vein  Superficial branch of the radial nerve o Actual borders = extensor pollicis brevis and longus - Radial nerve o Supply all muscles of posterior compartment of both arm and forearm - Flexor retinaculum o A.k.a. transverse carpal ligament o Roof of the carpal tunnel o Attached to tubercle of scaphoid bone and pisiform bone GLUTEAL REGION, POSTERIOR THIGH & POPLITEALL FOSSA - Thigh compartmentalization o Anterior – femoral nerve (exception = iliopsoas – femoral n. & lumbar pexus; pectineus = femoral n. & obturator n.) o Medial – obturator nerve (exception = adductor magnus – obturator n. & tibial n.) o Posterior – sciatic nerve - Femoral triangle: NAVL – anterior view – lateral to medial o Femoral Nerve o Femoral Artery o Femoral Vein o Femoral Lymphatics - Branches off femoral artery 6 o Anterior tibial artery o Medial/lateral inferior genicular artery o Medial/lateral superior genicular artery o Profunda femoris artery o Popliteal artery o Posterior tibial artery - Branches of sciatic nerve o Common fibular division  Nerve to short head of biceps femoris  Articulate branch  Superficial fibular  Deep fibular  Lateral sural cutaneous o Tibial division  Nerves to hamstrings (4 separate branches, including one to hamstring portion of adductor magnus)  Branches to posterior compartment muscles  Medial seral cutaneous nerve • Sural nerve formed by lateral and medial sural cutaneous nerves SUPERFICIAL LOWER LIMB, ANTERIOR & MEDIAL THIGH - Contents of adductor canal o Nerve to vastus medialis o Femoral artery (this only passes through hiatus) o Femoral vein (this only passes through hiatus) o Saphenous nerve - Patellar ligament is a continuation of the quadricepcs femoris tendon - Knee-jerk (patellar) reflex L2, 3, 4, lifts your leg off the floor o Tests L2-L4 - Branches of the femoral nerve (L2, 3, 4) o Anterior cutaneous branches o Nerve to pectineus o Nerve to sartorius o Nerves to quadriceps femoris (4 separate branches) o Saphenous nerve  Infrapatellar branch  Medial cutaneous nerves of leg - Neurovascular structures of mid-femoral shaft cross section (see picture in lab manual) o Femoral artery & vein o Saphenous nerve o Profunda femoris artery & vein o Sciatic (tibial & common fibular) nerve - The PCL is the PAIN ligament o Attaches to Posterior aspect of tibia o Courses Anteriorly and INternally (medially) to attach to medial condyle of femur - The ACL is the APEX ligament o Attaches to Anterior aspect of tibia o Courses Posteriorly and Externally (laterally) to attah to medial condyle of femur LEG AND FOOT - Tendons passing on medial side of ankle (ventral to dorsal) in flexor retinaculum: Tom Dick And Nervous Harry o Tibialis posteior o Flexor Digitorum longus o Posterior tibial Artery o Posterior tibial Nerve o Flexor Hallucis longus o Note: flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior cross when going from the posterior thigh onto the medial ankle 7 - Sciatic nerve divisions and actions: PED TIP o Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexes (if injured results in foot drop) o Tibial Inverts and Plantarflexes (if injured can’t stand on TIPtoes) - Other structures in leg (see cross section in lab manual) o Fibula (small “feeble” lateral bone) o Tibia o Great saphenous vein o Saphenous nerve o Small saphenous vein o Lateral sural cutaneous nerve JOINTS BACK JOINT & TYPE LOCATION/ASSOC. ARTICULATING SURFACES MOTION STRUCTURES Atlanto-occipital Above cervical vertebrae Atlas – superior articulating surfaces for Biaxial motion Synovial – condyloid between atlas (C1) and occipital epicondal (flexion/extension of occipital bone Occipital bone head & lateral flexion away from midline) YES joint Atlanto-axial Between atlas (C1) and axis Atlas – articular facet for dens Rotation Synovial – pivot (C2) (has dens) Axis – anterior articular facet for anterior arch NO joint of atlas Symphyses Between vertebral bodies Articulating surfaces connected by IV discs Shock absorption and Secondary cartilaginous and ligaments weight bearing joints Allow movement in spinal column SHOULDER & PECTORAL REGION Sternoclavicular Associated structures Clavicle – sternal end Elevation/depression Synovial – saddle Fibrocatilage disc Sternum – manubrium Sternoclavicular ligament Protraction/retraction Interclavicular ligament Costoclavicular ligament Rotation Acromioclavicular Associated structures Clavicle – acromial end Rotation (scapula on Synovial – plane Fibrocartilage disc Scapula – acromion process clavicle) Acromioclavicular ligament Coracoclavicular ligament 8 Glenohumeral Features Humeral head Rotation of shoulder Synovial – ball & Glenoid fossa = ~ 1/3 size of Glenoid fossa socket humeral head Noncontractile ligaments and contractile rotator cuff enhance stability Associated structures Coracoacromial ligament Superior, middle, & inferior glenohumeral ligaments Coracohumeral ligament Transverse humeral ligament (doesn’t provide stability to joint but instead stabilizes biceps tendon between glenoid and humeral tuberosities) Glenoid labrum (fibrocartilagenous ring that surrounds glenoid fossa and acts as rim of cartilage to deepen glenoid fossa) Subacromial/subdeltoid bursa supraspinatus tendon which alsod extends to deltoid muscle; decreases friction between these 2 structures) Scapulothoracic Between scapula and thoracic cavity Elevation/depression Not a true synovial joint (frontal plane motions) Protraction/retraction (transverse plane) downward/upward rotation of shoulder girdle AXILLA, ARM, & ELBOW Humeroulnar Features See associated structures Flexion/extension Synovial – hinge Along with humeroradial is considered together as Prevent abduction of “elbow joint” forearm (LCL) Associated structures Lateral collateral ligament Hold radius to ulna (protects against varus deviation of (AL) forearm; blends with annular ligament) Medial collateral ligament Prevent adduction of (medial epicondyle of humerus to forearm (UC) coronoid process and olecranon process; protects against valgus deviation of forearm) Annular ligament of radius (encircles head of radius and attaches to radial notch margins; holds head of radius against ulna and protects against distal dislocation of radius) Ulnar collateral (has 3 bands) Humeroradial Along with humerulnar is Supination – radial head spins on fixed Flexion/extension Synovial – modified considered together as capitulum of ulna hinge “elbow joint” Supination/pronation 9 (does not occur in elbow jt; occurs in forearm) Proximal radioulnar Annular ligament of radius Supination – radial head spins on fixed Supination/pronation Synovial – pivot capitulum of ulna (does not occur in elbow jt; occurs in forearm) Holds radius to ulna (AL) Distal radioulnar Anterior and posterior Supination – radial head spins on fixed Supination/pronation (does not occur in elbow jt; Synovial – pivot ligaments capitulum of ulna occurs in forearm) Strengthens fibrous capsule (AL & PL) HAND Radiocarpal Between distal radius and proximal carpals Wrist flexion/extension Synovial – condyloid Wrist abduction/adduction Midcarpal Between proximal and distal row of carpal Gliding motions Synovial – plane bones between carpals Distal radioulnar joint Between distal end of radius and ulna Supination/pronation of Synovial – pivot forearm Carpometacarpal Between carpals and metacarpals Adduction/abduction of Thumb – saddle thumb Digits – gliding (perpendicular to plane of palm) Flexion/extension of thumb (parallel to plane of palm) Opposition of thumb Metacarpophalangeal Associated structures Between metacarpals and proximal phalanges Flexion/extension of Thumb – hinge Collateral ligament digits Digits – condyloid Palmar ligament (plate) (provide lateral stability to joint; Flexion/extension of medial collateral ligament of each thumb digit prevents lateral deviation) AB/Adduction of digits Proximal Associated structures Between proximal phalanges and middle Flexion/extension of interphalangeal Collateral ligament phalanges digits Hinge Palmar ligament (plate) (provide lateral stability to joint; medial collateral ligament of each digit prevents lateral deviation) Distal interphalangeal Associated structures Between middle phalanges and distal phalanges Flexion/extension of Hinge Collateral ligament digits Palmar ligament (plate) (provide lateral stability to joint; medial collateral ligament of each digit prevents lateral deviation) GLUTEAL REGION, THIGH, & HIP JOINT Hip joint/Pelvic girdle Associated structures All 3 capsular ligaments Synovial – ball & 3 capsular ligaments (external reinforce hip joint socket to fibrous capsule): stability Iliofemoral ligament (anterior; large, stout; attaches pelvis Ligamentus teres: to femur; strongest of the 3) Little/no role in hipo Pubofemoral ligament (anterior; attaches pubic pelvis to stability 10 femur) Carries artery of the Ischiofemoral ligament ligamentum teres to (posterior; attaches femur to ischio femoral head (important part of pelvis; resists posterior dislocation of femur head) in kids) Ligamentum teres (originates from acetabular labrum of the hip bone and inserts into fovea of femoral head) Sacroiliac joint Associated structures Between pelvic girdle and axial skeleton Strongest and most Synovial Sacroiliac ligament stable joint in body (between sacrum and iliac crest) Iliolumbar ligament (between iliac crest on either side to Prevents great upward transverse processes of fifth lumbar movement of inferior vertebra) end of sacrum Sacrospinous ligament (ischial spine to sacrum) Sacrotuberous ligament (ischial tuberosity to sacrum) Pubic symphysis Associated structures Between left and right hip bones Holds pubic symphysis Secondary cartilaginous Superior pupbic ligament Anterior together joint KNEE, LEG, ANKLE, FOOT Femorotibial – knee Associated structures Femur, tibia, patella involved (no fibula) Gliding joint 1 Medial (tibial) collateral 3 articular surfaces Synovial – hinge ligament femoral condyles Rotation (attached to meniscus posteriorly; (menisci fibrocartilage between femoral and tibial extends from medial femoral condyles; get distorted as knee flexes/extends to distribute Mainly epicondyle and widens to insert into weight evenly over joint) flexion/extension shaft of tibia below tibial tuberosity tibial plateu lcapsule and attached to medialjoint patella menisci) Translocation Lateral (fibular) collateral Slight medial rotation of ligament femur in extension (from lateral femoral epicondyle to insert into fibula head; free of joint (locked) capsule with no attachment to lateral meniscus) Unlocking is by Posterior cruciate ligament popliteus (rotates femur (PCL) (attached to posterior tibia and laterally relative to tibia courarses anteriorly and medially to for flexion) attach to medial femur condyle) Anterior cruciate ligament MCL prevents abduction at knee (ACL) (attaches to anterior aspect of tibia and courses posteriorly and laterally LCL prevents adduction to attach to medial femur condyle) of leg at knee Remember: Cruciate ligaments control PCL prevents femur A/P translation and rotation from sliding forward in Collateral ligaments control flexed weight bearing knee (walking down M/L stability and rotation hill) ACL prevents posterior movement of femur on tibial plateau 11 Unhappy triad = MCL, ACL, medial meniscus Femoropatellar joint – Associated structures Apex of patella to tibial tuberosity Prepatellar and knee joint 2 Patellar ligament suprapatella bursa associated; bursitis of suprapatella causes patella to appear to float over femur Lengthens lever arm and increases mechanical advantage of quadriceps femoris muscle Prevents wear and tear on quadriceps tendon as it passes across trochlear groove Ankle joint Associated structures Attachments are tibio-fibular mortise and talus Dorsiflexion (extension) Synovial – hinge Articular capsule Medial (deltoid) ligament Dorsiflexion (all anterior leg muscles Plantarflexion (flexion) Lateral ligament innervated by deep fibular nerve) = extension: Tibialis anterior Bones Ext. digitorum longus Tibia Ext. hallucis longus Fibula Fibularis tertius Talus Plantarflexion (lat innerv by superficial fibular nerve and post muscles innerv by tibial nerve) = flexion: Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris Tibialis posterior Flex. Digitorum longus Flex. Hallucis longus Fibularis longus Fibularis brevis Deep fibular n. – L 4 L5, S1) TIbial n. – L5, S1, 2 ) Superficial fibular n. – L 5 S1) Tarsal Joint: 2 types of transverse tarsal: Inversion Inversion/Eversion Transverse tarsal Talo-calcaneo-navicular Tibialis anterior – Deep Fibular n. (L 4 L 5 (Between talus, calcaneous, and (midtarsal) navicular) Tibialis posterior – Tibial n. (L5, S1) Spring ligament – stabilizes medial AND Calcaneo-cuboid Eversion longitudinal arch (between calcaneus and cuboid) Fibularis brevis – superficial fib n. (L5, 1 ) Subtalar (talo- Associated structures Fibularis longus – superficial fib n. (L 5 S1) Short & Long plantar calcaneal) Plantar Calcaneo-navicular FIbularis tertius – deep fibular n. (L4, L5, 1 ) ligaments – support longitudinal arches; (spring) ligament long also forms tunnel (between calcaneus and navicular) Long plantar ligament for tendon of peroneus Short plantar ligament longus NOTES 12 Inguinal ligament – su
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