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Visceral, Blood Flukes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2000
Professor
Gubbels
Semester
Fall

Description
Parasite Viscera Flukes (Digenea) Blood Flukes (Schistosomes) Type Trematoda (Flat Worms) Trematoda (Flat Worms) Transmission -Liver fluke disease (Clonorchis) - raw or undercooked FISH (carp) (where -infection through skin metacercaria) (Cats, Dogs can be additional hosts and resevoirs) , -feces in water, snail in water, get from being in water like carwash, laundry, fertilization of ponds with untreated soil hydroelectric dams/irrigation projects -Lung fluke disease (Paragonimus) - CRABS -Intestinal/liver fluke (Fasciola) – PLANTS (eggs hatch in water to go to snail) Movement -cilia on miracidium -young cercariae move up then fall down in water -cercarial activity stimulated by water turbulence, shadow, human skin chemicals Life Stage -do not reproduce in host -do not reproduce in host -always a snail as intermediate host -vectors are fresh water snails -EGG: contains embryo, have to leave body of host to continue development, -different because have TWO DIFFERENT SEXES mature miracidium uses light, osmolality, and temp to know when to hatch, -EGGS with miracidia inside pass from excretory waste into water (eggs are what hatch through preformed door (operculum) cause disease because cause inflammatory reactions) -MIRACIDIUM: highly motile due to cilia, small eyes and several chemical -hatch in water to release MIRACIDIUM and penetrates snail receptors to find snail intermediate host, penetration glands secrete lytic -two or more generations of SPOROCYSTS in snail enzymes on contact with host (if land snails will eat egg and hatch then -CERCARIA released into water and penetrates skin and becomes penetrate gut) SCHISTOSOMULUM (in veins), travels to lungs, then migrates to liver (6-8 days -SPOROCYST - bare minimum of organs, take up nutrients over tegument, after entrance) and develops into daughter sporocysts, redia, or cercaria -At liver worm develops an oral sucker and being to feed on RBC, worm female/male -REDIA: next amplification generation, (oral and ventral sucker, gut, birth pore pair is formed for cercaria), mobile -adult pair relocates to rectal or bladder veins (5-25 years), settle in blood vessels with -CERCARIA: stage that leaves intermediate host and infect final host, show TNF because need to reproduce many features of adult fluke (direct invasion of host [Schitosoma], encysting in -EGGS pass through vessel walls into intestine or bladder to be released intermediate hosts [Clonorchis], encysting on plants [Fasciola]) -METACERCARIA Diseases -Liver fluke disease (Clonorchis) -Schistosomiasis with schistosomal parasites of birds (ducks) and mammals, small -Lung fluke disease (Paragonimus) reddish pimples -Intestinal/liver fluke (Fascioliasis) Symptoms -Human Liver Fluke Disease: fibrosis of bilary duct epithelium (pipe stem -skin eruption at site of entry fibrosis), blockage of bile ducts and impairment of liver fxn, liver swelling, -fever, diarrhea liver cirrhosis, and predisposition to gall blander cancer -Cirrhosis of liver -Human Lung Fluke Disease: cyst can rupture and cause cough, increase -blockage of portal vein results in splenomegaly or heptamegaly sputum, and chest pain; chronic high worm can result in chronic bronchitis, -children more susceptible dyspnea and increasing fibrosis; cerebral paragon
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