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BIOL 2000

Questions What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryote? Which organelles are in plant cells and which are in animal? Which organelles have a double membrane? What is a definition of a organelle? What material is in a vacuole of an animal cell? a plant cells? What organelle stores genetic information? What organelles are part of protein synthesis and processing? (ribosomes, rough er, golgi) What organelle is part of lipid synthesis? (smooth er) What organelle processes lipids? (peroxisomes) What organelle does glycoslation? (golgi) What organelle has cisternae? (golgi) What organelle has acid hydrolases that catalzye hydrolysis reactions? (lysosomes) What organelle catalizes oxidation reactions and contains catalse? (peroxisomes) What process occurs inside the organelle and by what? rough ER- protien synthesis through ribosomes golgi apparatus- transports materials using vesicles Smoorth ER-lipid synthesis and breack down, by enzymes What inner structures are in the organelle? nucleus- nucleous, nuclear lamnina, nuclear evnvelope rough er- lumen, stacks What organelles store things and what? smoot er- stores Ca+ ions Terms/Notes from Slides Ch. 7 cell structure prokaryotes-lack membrane-bound nucleus eukaryotes-have membrane-bound nucleus bacteria-prokaryotic archaea-prokaryotic eukarya cytoplasm-surrounded by the plasma membrane, includes all contents of the cell cell wall-tough, for protechtion, shape, structure plasmids ribosomes flagellum cell wall plasma membrane chromosome cytoplasm supercoilling-allows 1mm (500 cell lengths) of DNA to fit inside cell bacterial ribosome- protein-RNA structure -fuctions: protein manufacturing major differences betwen pro and eu 1. eu- membrame-bound nucleus 2. eu- is bigger 3. eu - extensive internal membrane 4. eu- diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton eukaryotic cells organelles: membrane-bound structures in cell, have specific shape and function -allow cells to have a divided cytoplasm -increase chemical reaction efficiency by separating incompatible chemical reactions and grouping enzymes and substrates together. Animal cell centrioles-structures that occur only in animal cells but not plant cells nucleus nuclear envelope nucleous chromosome rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes peroxisomes smooth endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus lysosome mitochondriom cytoskeletal element plasma membrane Figure 7.6a in book Figure 7.6b in book Generalized plant cell cell wall-only in plant cells chloroplasts-only in plant cells on average, prokaryotes are about 10x smaller than eukaryotic cell sin diameter anda bout 100times smaller than eukarotic cells in volume nucleus- double membrane (envelope); assembles ribosome subunits, structural support, contains genetic information nuclear pores- openings on nuclear envelope chromosomes nucleolus-distinct region in nucleus, makes ribosomal RNA nuclear lamina nuclear envelope nucleolus chromosome rough endoplasmic reticulum-single membrane, continuous membrane with the nuclear envelope, contains receptors for entry of seleted proteins, network of branching sacs, riibosomes associated, protein sysnthesis and processing ribosomes-no membrane; made up of large protein subunits and small RNA subunits. large/small subunits; protein synthesis smooth endoplasmic reticulm- single membrane, contains enzymes for synthesizing phosolipids, network of branching sacs, enyzmes for synthesizing lipids, lipid sythesis (smooth oily ER) golgi apparatus-single membrane, contains receptors for products o
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