BIOL2000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Aneuploidy, Inbreeding, Genetic Disorder

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14 Apr 2016
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Molecules and Cells (Taghian and Chiles)
Exam 3 Study Guide
Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term
Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation (Fermentation Only)
Fermentation
Metabolic pathway that regenerates NAD+ by oxidizing stockpiles of NADH. Electrons
taken from NADH are transferred to pyruvate instead of the Electron Transport Chain
oLactic acid fermentation: pyruvate is converted to lactate; replaces aerobic
respiration during intense exercise
oAlcohol fermentation: pyruvate is converted into 2 acetylaldehyde (2 carbon
dioxides come off; why bread rises in the oven)
oInefficient compared to cellular respiration (produces only 2 molecules of ATP per
glucose molecule; cellular respiration produces 29 per glucose molecule!)
Test Your Knowledge
1. Which of the following would cause cells to switch from cellular respiration to
fermentation?
a. The final electron acceptor in the ETC is not available
b. The proton-motive force shuts down
c. NADH and FADH2 supplies are low
d. Pyruvate is not available
2. What is the function of the reactions in a fermentation pathway?
a. To generate NADH from NADH+ so electrons can be donated to the
electron transport chain
b. To synthesize pyruvate from lactate
c. To generate NAD+ from NADH so glycolysis can continue
d. To synthesize electron acceptors so the cellular respiration can continue
3. Why does aerobic respiration produce more ATP than anaerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration utilizes oxygen, which is the normal procedure of cellular
respiration. Anaerobic respiration relies on exchanges between NADH and
NAD+, which is not enough to sustain the body.
4. What is the difference between Catabolic and Anabolic pathways?
a. Catabolic synthesizes larger molecules from smaller components while
anabolic is the breakdown of molecules and the production of ATP
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b. Catabolic needs high energy electrons while anabolic does not
c. Catabolic uses carbon containing molecules while anabolic only uses
electrons
d. Catabolic includes the breakdown of molecules to produce ATP while
anabolic synthesizes larger molecules from smaller components
Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle
The Cell Cycle
Responsible for growth, wound repair, and reproduction. Consists of the replication of
chromosomes (DNA double helix wrapped around histones in a highly organized
manner)
oReplication: genome is duplicated. Mechanisms in the nucleus repairs errors in
duplication process
oRestriction point: ensures that cells are ready to replicate genomes by
temporarily blocking the cycle
oMitosis is the production of various cell types while Meiosis is the production of
gametes
There are five phases of mitosis, where microtubules play a role in moving
chromosomes
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oS phase: part of interphase where replication of genetic material occurs
oCytokinesis: immediately follows telophase; actin microfilaments wrap around
circumference of the cell and causing a cleavage furrow (contraction until cells
pinch apart
Control of the Cell Cycle
M Phase-Promoting Factor: group of proteins that are active in M phase; they are sufficient by
themselves to promote mitosis, are present in all eukaryotes, and are composed of two distinct
subunits
oCyclin B: regulatory protein
oCyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase (cdk): catalyzes phosphorylation of a target protein
using ATP
oCyclin protein levels oscillate with the cell cycle, increasing in Interphase, peaking in M
phase, and decrease afterwards. Cdk1 is active only when bound to Cyclin B; the higher
the concentrations of cyclin, the more active MPF is and the more target proteins get
phosphorylated (initiating mitosis)
Cycle checkpoints prevent the division of cells that are damaged or that have other problems
oSocial control: cells responding to signals from other cells; cells divide only when their
growth benefits the whole organism
oGrowth factors: polypeptides or small proteins released by cells that stimulate division in
other cells
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