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BIOL 4260 Midterm: HA_Study_Guide_1

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BIOL 4260

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Human Anatomy Exam One Study Guide Chapter One: THE HUMAN BODY Gross Anatomy • Regional- all structures in one part of the body • Systemic- gross anatomy of the body studied by system • Surface- study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin Microscopic Anatomy • Cytology- study of the cell • Histology- study of the tissue Developmental Anatomy • Traces structural changes throughout life • Embryology- study of developmental changes of the body before birth Specialized Branches of Anatomy • Pathological Anatomy- study of structural changes caused by disease • Radiographic Anatomy- study of internalized structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures such as X-Ray, MRI and CT scans • Molecular Biology- study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level Physiology- considers the operation of specific organ systems; focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular and molecular level • Renal- kidney function • Neurophysiology- working of the nervous system • Cardiovascular- operations of the heart and blood vessels • Understanding Physiology also requires knowledge of physics, which explains… o Electrical currents o Blood pressure o The way muscle uses bone for movement Principle of Complementarity • Function always reflects structure • What a structure can do depends on its specific form Levels of Structural Organization • Chemical- atoms are combined to form molecules • Cells- made of molecules • Tissue- consists of several types of cell • Organ- made up of different types of tissue • Organ system- consists of different organs that work closely together • Organismal- made up of the organ systems Organ Systems 1) Integumentary System (Skin) • Forms the external body covering • Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails • Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D 2) Skeletal System • Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments • Protects and supports body organs • Provides the framework for muscles • Site of blood cell formation • Stores minerals 3) Muscular System • Composed of muscle and tendons • Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression • Maintains posture • Produces heat 4) Nervous System • Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves • Fast-acting control system of the body • Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands 5) Cardiovascular System • Composed of the heart and blood vessels • The heart pumps blood • The blood vessels transport blood through out the body 6) Lymphatic System • Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nods, and lymph vessels • Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood • Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream • Houses white blood cells involved with immunity 7) Respiratory System • Composed of the naval cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide 8) Digestive System • Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, SI, LI, rectum, anus and liver • Breaks down food into absorbable units the enter the blood • Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces 9) Urinary system • Composed of kidneys, urethra, ureters, and urinary bladder • Eliminated nitrogenous wastes from the body • Regulates electrolyte, water, and pH level in the blood 10) Male Reproductive System • Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum and ductus deferens • Main function is the production of offspring • Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone • Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract 11) Female Reproductive System • Composed of mammary glands, uterine tubes, uterus, ovaries, and vagina • Main function is the production of offspring • Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones • Remaining structures serves as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus • Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn Organ Systems Interrelationships • The Integumentary system protects the body from the external environment • Digestive and Respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in vital nutrients and oxygen • Nutrients and oxygen are distributed throughout the body by the blood • Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Necessary Life Functions • Maintaining boundaries- the internal environment remains distinct from the external environment o Cellular level- accomplished by plasma membranes o Organismal level- accomplished by the skin • Movement- locomotion, contractility, and propulsion/ peristalsis • Responsiveness- ability to detect changes in the environment and respond to them • Digestion- breakdown of ingested foodstuffs • Metabolism- all the chemical reactions that occur in the body • Excretion- removal of wastes from the body • Reproduction- cellular and Organismal levels o Cellular- an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells o Organismal- sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person • Growth- increase in the size of a body part or of the organism Survival Needs • Nutrients- needed for energy and cell building • Oxygen- necessary for metabolic reactions • Water- provides the necessary environment for certain chemical reactions • Normal body temperature- necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates • Atmospheric Pressure- required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs Homeostasis • The ability to maintain a stable internal environment in an ever-changing external world • The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium • Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostatsis Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Variables produce a change in the body • The three interdependent components of control mechanisms o Receptor: monitors the environment and responds to changes (stimuli) o Control center: determines the set point at which the variable is maintained o Effector: provides the means to respond to stimuli Negative Feedback Mechanism • The output shuts off the original stimulus • Example: regulation of room temperature Positive Feedback Mechanisms • Output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus • Example: regulation of blood clotting Homeostatic Imbalance • Disturbance of homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium • Overwhelming the normal negative feedback mechanism allows destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over Anatomical Position • The body is erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body Directional Terms • Superior and Inferior- toward and away from the head, respectively • Anterior and posterior- toward the front and back of the body • Medial, lateral, and intermediate- toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial and lateral structure • Proximal and distal- closer to and farther from the origin of the body part • Superficial and deep- toward and away from the surface of the body Body Planes • Sagittal- divides the body into right and left • Midsagittal/ medial-sagittal plane that lies on the midlin • Frontal/ coronal- divides the body into anterior and posterior parts • Transverse/ Horizontal (cross-section)- divides body into superior and inferior parts • Oblique section- cutes made diagonally Body Cavities • Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system and is divided into two subdivisions o Cranial Cavity- within the skull; encases the brain o Vertebral Cavity- runs with vertebral column; encases the spinal cord • Ventral cavity encases internal organs (viscera) and is divided into two divisions o Thoracic o Abdominopelvic o • Thoracic cavity (in ventral cavity) is subdivided into 2 pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity o Pleural cavities- each house a lung o Mediastinum- contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs o Pericardial cavity- encloses the heart • Abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm o Abdominal cavity- contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other organs o Pelvic cavity- lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum Ventral Body Cavity Membranes • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls • Visceral serosa- covers the internal organs • Serous fluid separates the serosae Other Body Cavities • Oral and Digestive- mouth and cavities of the digestive organs • Nasal- located within and posterior to the nose • Orbital- houses the eyes • Middle ear- contains bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations • Synovial- joint cavities Abdominopelvic Regions (also sometimes divided into 4 quadrants [upper R, lower L, etc.]) Organs of the Abdominopelvic Chapter 5: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Functions • Chemical Protection- pH 4-6 o Acid mantel prevents bacterial multiplication o Melanin forms a shield; prevents from mutation of DNA o Defensin= natural antibiotics; punches holes in bacterial cell wall o Cathelcidin—secreted from injured skin; prevents further bacterial infection • Mechanical/ Physical Protection o Thick epidermis= several layers of keratinized cells= impermeable o Keratinized cells also secrete glycolipids waterproofing o … Some substances do penetrate, though ▪ Lipid soluble substance (O2, CO2, fat soluble vitamins and steroids) ▪ Plant oleoresins (poison ivy and poison oak) • Organic solvents acetone, paint thinner, dry cleaning fluid, alcohol based ▪ Salts of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Ni) ▪ Drug penetration enhancers (dialkyl amino acetate carries drugs across) • Biological Barrier o Epidermal dendritic cells (Langherhan’s cells) immune defense protection o Melanocytesmelanin biologic sunscreen ▪ DNA molecule absorbs sunlight, heats up surrounding water, and begins to vibrate violently • Body Temperature Regulation o Under normal, resting body temperature, sweat glands produce 500 ml/ day of unnoticeable sweat= insensible perspiration o If body temperature rises, dilation of dermal vessels can increase sweat gland activity to produce 12 L (3 gallons) of noticeable sweat= sensible perspiration designed to cool the body o In cold environments, dermal vessels constrict and skin temperature drops to slow passive heat loss • Prevention of water loss- trans epidermal water loss o Sebaceous glands insensible secretions mix with sebum forms a thick, acidic, oily film over the epidermis film slows TEWL • Sensory Perception o Sensory receptors detect heat, cold, touch, pressure and vibration o Merkel cells light touch o Meissner’s touch o Pacinian corpuscles pressure o Nerve endings heat, pain and vibration • Metabolic regulation o Derived from cholesterol o Cholecalciferol o Calcitrol • Excretory o Limited o NH3, urea, and uric acid o Noticeable profuse sweating water imbalance • Blood volume o Skin can hold up to 5% of the body’s total blood volume o Skin vessels can be constricted to shunt blood to other organs, such as exercising muscle Parts of the Integumentary System • Skin (integument) and its derivatives o Consists of 3 major regions ▪ Epidermis- outermost superficial region • Consists mostly of keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium • Four cell types in the epidermis: o 1) Keratinocytes: produce keratin= protein that gives skin its protective properties ▪ Major cells of the epidermis ▪ Tightly connected by desmosomes ▪ Millions slough off every day o 2) Melanocytes: spider-shaped cells located deepest in the epidermis ▪ Produce melanin, which is packaged into melanosomes, which are transferred to keratinocytes to protect nucleus from UV damage o 3) Dendritic (Langherhan’s) Cells: star- shaped macrophages that patrol deep epidermis; key activators of the immune system o 4) Tactile (Merkel) cells: sensory receptors that sense touch • Layers of the epidermis o 1) Stratum basale (Basal layer): deepest layer firmly attached to the dermis; consists of a single row of mitotic cells daughter cells take 25- 45 days to reach the surface and they die as they reach the surface; one daughter cell remains in the basal cell as a stem cell; 10-25% contains melanocytes o 2) Stratum Spinosum (Prickly layer): several layers thick; cells contain a weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments with desmosomes (to resist tension and pulling); keratinocytes appear spikey; also melanosomes and dendritic cells o 3) Stratum Granulosum (granular layer): thin; 3-5 layers in which drastic changes in keratinocyte appearance changes; keratohyaline (known for keratinization process) and lamellated granules (fuse with plasma membrane and extrude their contents lipids into exracellular space waterproofing) o 4) Stratum Lucidum (Clear layer)- thin transparent band superficial to the granulosum; consists of a few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes; present only in thick skin and hair devoid regions o 5) Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)- outermost layer of keratinized cells anucleate; accounts for ¾ of epidermal thickness; functions include waterproofing, protection from abrasion and penetration, rendering the body relatively insensitive to biological, chemical and physical assault o Cells change by going through apoptosis—dead cells slough off as dander or dandruff; humans can shed ~50,000 cells every minute ▪ Dermis- middle region; second major skin region contain strong, flexible connective tissue • Cell types include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells • 2 layers= papillary and reticular layer o 1) Papillary- areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers ▪ Superior surface contains peg-like projections called dermal papillae, which contain capillary loops, Meissner’s corpuscles, and free nerve endings ▪ In thick skin, dermal papillae lie on top of dermal ridges, which give rise to epidermal ridges friction ridges (enhance gripping ability, contribute to sense of touch, sweat pores in ridges give rise to fingerprints) o 2) Reticular layer- accounts for approximately 80% of the thickness of the skin; collagen fibers in this layer give strength and resilience to the skin and elastin fibers provide stretch-recoil properties ▪ Cleavage (tension) layers- caused by many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface; externally invisible; important to surgeons because incisions parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily ▪ Flexure lines= dermal folds at or near joints; dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures; skin’s inability to slide easily for joint movement causes ridges (hands, wrists, soles, toes, fingers) ▪ Hypodermis (superficial fascia)- deepest region; not part of the skin; subcutaneous layer deep to the skin • Composed of adipose and areolar connective tissue o Homeostatic imbalance- ▪ Extreme stretching of skin can cause dermal tears, leaving silvery white scars called striae (stretch marks) ▪ Extreme, short-term trauma to skin can cause blisters- fluid-filled pockets that separate epidermal and dermal layers o 3 pigments contribute to skin color ▪ Melanin- only pigment made in skin; made by melanocytes • Packaged into melanosomes, which are sent to keratinocytes to protect the nucleus from UV damage; sun exposure stimulate melanin production • 2 forms= reddish yellow and brownish black • All humans have the same number of keratinocytes so color differences are due to differences in amount and form of melanin • Freckles and moles are accumulations of melanin ▪ Carotene- yellow to orange pigment; most obvious in palms and soles; accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis; can be converted to vitamin A for vision and epidermal health ▪ Hemoglobin- pinkish hue of pale skin due to low amounts of melanin o Do alterations in skin color indicate skin disease? ▪ Cyanosis= blue skin color due to low oxygenation of hemoglobin ▪ Erythema= redness due to fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy ▪ Pallor= blanching or pale color due to anemia, low blood pressure, fear or anger ▪ Jaundice= yellow cast; liver disorders ▪ Bronzing= inadequate steroid hormones ▪ Bruises= black and blue marks; clotted blood beneath skin • Glands- sweat and oil • Hair • Nails • Appendages o 1) Sweat glands (sudoriferous glands); all skin surfaces except nipples and parts of the external genitalia contain sweat glands; About 3 million per person ▪ Two main types • Eccrine (merocrine): most abundant types; on soles, forehead and palms; connect to pores o Function in thermoregulation-SNS regulation o Their secretion is sweat (99% water, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin, metabolic wastes) • Apocrine- confined to axillary and angogenital areas o Secrete viscous milky or yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and proteins ▪ Bacteria break down sweat, leading to body odor o Larger than eccrine sweat glands with ducts emptying into hair follicles o Begin functioning at puberty o Modified apocrine glands: ▪ Ceruminous glands: lining of external ear canal; secrete cerumen (earwax) ▪ Mammary glands: secrete milk ▪ Contain myoepithelial cells- contract upon NS stimulation to force sweat into ducts o 2) Sebaceous glands (oil)- widely distributed except for thick skin of palms and soles ▪ Most develop from hair follicles and secrete into hair follicles ▪ Relatively inactive during puberty (stimulated by hormones esp. androgens) ▪ Secrete sebum- • Oily holocrine secretion • Bactericidal (bacteria-killing) characteristics • Softens hair and skin o Homeostatic Imbalance (Cont.) ▪ Merocrine glands release secrete their products by endocytosis vs. holocrine glands- the entire cell ruptures, releasing secretions and dead cell fragments ▪ Whiteheads= blocked sebaceous glands… when the secretion oxidizes it becomes a blackhead ▪ Acne is often an infectious inflammation of the sebaceous glands, resulting in pimples/ pustules ▪ Overactive sebaceous glands in infants can lead to Seborrhea, know as cradle cap— begin as pink/ yellow lesions on the scalp that turn yellow/ brown and flake off o 3) Hair- dead keratinized cells; none located on palms, soles, lips, nipples and portions of external genitalia ▪ Functions= warn of insects on skin, hair on head guards against physical trauma, protect from heat loss, shield skin from sunlight ▪ Structure of a hair (pilli)= flexible strands of dead, keratinized cells; produced by hair follicles • Contain hard keratin, not soft keratin found in skin ▪ Regions: • Shaft: area that extends above scalp, where keratinization is complete • Root: Area within scalp, where keratinization is still going on ▪ 3 parts of shaft: • Medulla: central core of large cells and air spaces • Cortex: several layers of flattened cells surrounding the medulla • Cuticle: Outer layer consisting of overlapping layers of single cells ▪ Hair pigments are made by melanocytes in hair follicles: gray/ white hairs result when melanin production decreases and air bubbles replace melanin in shaft ▪ Structure of hair follicle • Extends from epidermal surface to dermis • Hair bulb= expanded area at deep end of follicle • Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus): sensory nerve endings that wrap around bulb; hair is considered a sensory touch receptor • Hair matrix: actively dividing area of the hair bulb that produces new cells; as matrix makes new cells, it pushes old ones upward • Arrector pilli: small band of smooth muscle attached to follicle o Responsible for goose-bumps • Hair papilla: dermal tissue containing a knot of capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair ▪ Types and growth of hair • Vellus hair: pale, fine body hair of children and adult females • Terminal hair: coarse, long hair o Found on scalp and eyebrows o At puberty, appear at auxiliary and pubic regions of both sexes o Also on face and neck of males • Nutrition and hormones affect hair growth o Also blood supply, age, genes, and hair growth cycle • Follicles cycle between active and regressive phases ▪ Clinical- in women, ovaries and adrenal glands produce a small amount of androgens, but tumors on these organs can result in abnormally large amounts of androgens • Can result in excessive hairiness called hisutism and other signs of masculinization • Treatment is surgical removal of tumors ▪ Hair thinning and baldness- • Alopecia- hair thinning in both sexes after age 40 • True/ frank baldness- Genetically determined and sex-influenced condition o Male pattern baldness caused by follicular response to DHT • Clinical- Thinning can be caused by high fever, surgery, severe emotional trauma, certain drugs, protein deficient diets, alopecia areata (when the immune system attacks follicles) ▪ Hair Growth Cycle: • Anagen/ active growth phase- 6 weeks to 10 years • Catagen/ Regressive Phase- hair matrix dies and follicle shrivels • Telogen/ resting phase= 1-3 months • After resting phase, the hair matrix proliferates and forms new hair which replaces the old one o 4) Arrector Pilli Muscle- connects between the hair follicle and papillary layer of the dermis at an angle ▪ Its contraction pulls the hair into an upright position and dimples the skin= goose bumps ▪ Hair raiser ▪ Raises body temperature o 5) Nail Skin Cancers • Most tumors are benign and do not metastasize • Crucial risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers is the disabling of p53 gene • Newly developed skin lotions can fix damaged DNA • 3 major types of skin cancer: o 1) Basal Cell Carcinoma- least malignant and most common skin cancer ▪ Stratum basale cells proliferate and invade the dermis and hypodermis ▪ Slow growing and do not often metastasize ▪ Can be cured by surgical excision in 99% cases o 2) Squamos Cell Carcinoma- arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinoma ▪ Most common on scalp, ear and lower lip ▪ Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed ▪ Prognosis is good if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically o 3) Melanoma- ▪ Cancer of melanocytes is the most dangerous type of skin cancer because it is: • 1) Highly metastatic • 2) Resistant to chemotherapy ▪ ABCDE rule (characteristics of melanomas) • Asymmetry • Border is irregular and exhibits indentations • Color is black, brown, tan, red, or blue • Diameter is larger than 6 mm • Evolving: change in size, shape, color, or symptoms ▪ Treated with excistion and immunotherapy ▪ Chance of survival is poor if lesion is bigger than 4 mm thick • Burns: destruction of skin by intense heat; cell death due to denaturation st • 1 degree: only the epidermis is damaged o Local redness, swelling and pain • 2 degree: epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged o Same symptoms as 1 degree with blisters • 3 degree: entire thickness of skin is damaged o Burned area appears gray-white, cherry red, or black; no initial edema or pain because nerve endings are destroyed • Rule of Nine: to calculate for replacement of fluids and calories • Treatment for aging skin • Laser resurfacing • Fat injections • Collagen injections • HA injection • Botox injection Aging skin • Epidermal replacement slows; skin become thin, dry and itchy • Subcutaneous fat and elasticity decrease, leading to cold intolerance and wrinkles • Increased risk for cancer due to decreased melanocytes and dendritic cells • Hair thinning • Ways to delay aging: UV protection, good nutrition, lots of fluids, good hygiene Chapter 6: CARTILAGE AND BONE Skeletal Cartilages • The human skeleton initially consists of just cartilage, which is replaced by bone, except in areas requiring flexibility Bone • Made up of cartilage and fibrous membrane • There are later replaced by bone Skeletal Cartilage • Resilient • Made up of 80% H2O • Contains no blood vessels or nerves • Surrounded by perichondrium (dense irregular connective tissue) that resists outward expansion • 3 types= hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage • 1) Hyaline cartilage- looks like frosted glass and is the most abundant o Provides support (reinforces), flexibility and resilience; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress o Is the most abundant skeletal cartilage o It is present in… ▪ Articular cartilage- covers the end of long bones ▪ Costal Cartilage- connects the ribs to the sternum ▪ Respiratory Cartilage- makes up the larynx and reinforces air passages ▪ Nasal Cartilage- supports the nose o Amorphous but firm; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chrondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature, lie in lacunae o Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones and most joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea and larynx • 2) Elastic cartilage-similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers in the matrix o Found in the external ear and the epiglottis o Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility • 3) Fibrocartilage- highly compressed with great tensile strength; contains collagen fibers o Found in the menisci
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