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Take Home Test 1 Part 2.docx

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CHEM 1105
Riley Mcminn

Chantz Delgado Chemistry and Society th October 11 , 2011 Take-Home Test 1) a. The three ways in which electromagnetic radiation is involved in chemistry is with electric power, radio waves, and microwaves. Electric power covers the low frequency, long-wavelength end of the spectrum. The radiation is usually ducted along 2- wire and 3-wire transmission lines and sent to various devices besides antennas.At zero- frequency, batteries and DC power supplies emit the energy, while at 50 Hz it is produced by rotary magnetic generators and ducted through the international power grids.Antennas of reasonable size generally utilize radio waves, so their wavelengths range from hundreds of meters to about one millimeter. Different parts of the radio spectrum are called bands. Common names for the different bands may refer to the wavelength, relative frequency or the type of transmission commonly used. They are used for transmission of data, via modulation. Examples of radio waves are through televisions, mobile phones, wireless networking, and amateur radios. Lastly, microwaves are waves that are typically short enough to tubular metal waveguides of reasonable diameter. They have a super high frequency. Microwave energy is produced with Klystron and Magnetron tubes, and with solid-state diodes such as Gunn and IMPATT devices. Molecules that have a dipole moment in liquids absorb microwaves. In a microwave oven, this effect is used to heat food.Also, low intensity microwave radiation is used in Wi-Fi. b. Two examples of analytical techniques that are made possible by way in which electromagnetic radiation interacts with molecules are absorption and the scattering or diffraction of the molecules. These are examples of spectroscopy. Spectroscopy is the study of interaction between matter and radiated energy.Absorption is the most common type of spectroscopy and it occurs when incident electromagnetic radiation is completely absorbed by the matter with which it interacts. Different matter species such as atoms and molecules absorbs different electromagnetic radiation.Absorption is generally measured by monitoring the amount of radiation that is transmitted through the material. The next example is scattering or diffraction. This type of spectroscopy depends upon how the incident electromagnetic radiation is scattered, diffracted or reflected.An example of scattering or diffraction is X-ray crystallography, which employs high-energy radiations of x-rays in order to examine the arrangement of atoms in crystals of proteins and molecules. 2) a. Prior to the Montreal P
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