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Chemistry and Society Exam Article Notes.docx

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Boston College
CHEM 1105
William Artrong

Chemistry and Society ExamArticle Notes Arsenic Levels in Rice (Boston Globe) • FDAstudy • The most arsenic found in Brown Rice and the least in Instant Rice • Amounts are small so no short-term health risks o Unsure about long-term health risks and advises people to vary diet just in case • Rice is thought to have arsenic in higher levels than most other foods because it is grown in water on the ground, optimal conditions for the contaminant to be absorbed • Arsenic is naturally present in water, air, food, and soil (organic and inorganic) o Organic arsenic passes through the body quickly and is essentially harmless o Inorganic arsenic — the type found in some pesticides — can be toxic and may pose a cancer risk if consumed at high levels or over a long period Alchemy (WIKI) • Influential philosophical tradition whose practitioners have, from antiquity, claimed it to be the precursor to profound powers • Defining objectives: o Creation of the fabled philosopher’s stone o The ability to transform base metals into noble ones (gold & silver) o The elixir of life (eternal youth) o Discovery of the universal solvent • Proto-science that contributed to the development of modern chemistry and medicine • Developed a framework of theory, terminology, experimental process, and basic laboratory techniques that are still found today. • Perfection was sought through the action of preparation and spiritual ennoblement resulted from inner revelation or enlightenment • Relation to Chemistry o Boyle (alchemist) is credited with being the father or chemistry o Alchemy influenced Newton’s theory of gravity o Made contributions to the chemical industries of the day:  Metalworking  Production of gunpowder, inks, paints, cosmetics  Ceramics o Early concept of the periodic table of elements • Declined in the 18 century • Revived during the occult revival of the 19 century o MaryAnneAtwood and EthanAllen Hitchcock Densest Array of Carbon Nanotubes Grown to Date (Science Daily) • Cambridge University • Their discovery of increasing the density of grown nanotubes could one day lead to the replacement of certain metal electronic components therefore leading to faster devices • Grew carbon nanotubes on a conductive copper surface that was coated with co-catalysts cobalt and molybdenum at a lower temperature than previously attempted Edisonian Approach (WIKI) • The use of theories available and the resorting to trial and error when no other theories are adequate (“hunt and try”) • Used the “bottom-up theoretical approach” when developing electric lighting • Chose problems that made use of what he already knew • Method was to invent systems rather than components of systems • Blended invention with economics • Used his resources: volunteers, equipment, literature • Edison was obsessive in his pursuits • Was able to conceive and manipulate his ideas on paper The World’s Smallest Stop-motion Film Made with Individual Atoms (NBC News) • IBM • Purpose was to inspire an excitement for science in ordinary people • Every dot in the film is one atom that is magnified 100 million times so that it is visible to the naked eye • Used this process to create a hard drive that stores 1 bit of data with just 12 atoms Possible Scientific Misconduct at Harvard University ( • Marc Hauser • Accused of publishing fabricated data by the US office of Research Integrity o Case could be construed as just sloppy scientific work • Lab records show that in the study, which examined habituation to sound patterns, two groups of Tamarin monkeys were played the same stimuli instead of different ones o This was because of an error in the computer program that played the stimuli, which the authors plausibly didn’t know about because the protocol called for them to be blinded to the stimuli at the time they coded the monkeys’responses Germany industry in revolt as green dream causes cost spiral (The Telegraph) • The government vowed to break dependence on fossil fuels and source 50pc of all electricity from wind, solar and other renewables by 2030 but the costs are over 1 trillion • Subsidies are surging and energy costs are spiraling out of control o Could cripple Germany’s economy Leucippus & Democritus (WIKI) • Democritus o Ancient Greek philosopher and pupil of Leucippus o Influential pre-Socratic philosopher o Created the atomic theory for the universe • Atomic Hypothesis o Provisions:  Everything is composed of atoms which are physically but not geometrically indivisible  Between these atoms lies empty space  Atoms are indestructible  Atoms are always in motion  There are an infinite number of atoms and kinds of atoms o Leucippus is widely credited with first developing the theory of atomism o Both proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms  The solidness of the ma
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