Child Growth Study Guide 12/17/2013
Components of Language
Phonological Development: the development of the ability to produce and comprehend sounds of one’s
language. The first words typically begin with a short number of sounds and by the preschool years the
pronunciation improves and phonological development is complete by age 5.
“Accent Prestige Theory:” people use an accent as a cue for judging characteristics of the speaker.
Semantic Development: the acquisition of words and their meanings.
The first words develop at around 12 months, and develop about 13 words a month, then hit a spurt at 50
words when 1020 words added each week.
There is a second spurt in language development in college.
Gramatic/ Syntactic Development: the acquisition of rules that indicates how words can be put together
First word combinations is a form of telegraphic speech
Next formulate simple sentences (1.52.5) to complex grammar (3)
It is a critical prerequisite for academic achievement
Study conducted by Vasileyva et al. (2006), exhibited that the complexity of a teacher’s speech is the best
predictor of child’s growth on the vocabulary test
Pragmatic Development: is how we use language.
Acquiring conversation skills: knowing what questions to ask and knowing how to express thought in
Match the context of conversation, choose the appropriate level of vocabulary and use conversation
Cross cultural differences
Gender differences Language as a whole
Any act of communication involves all the components
The components develop at different times. The phonology and grammar components develop relatively
early while semantic and pragmatic is a development that occurs throughout the life span.
Requirements for language development
Infant Direct Talk (IDT)
It’s a specific style of speech or way of speaking to infants that includes: emotional, slower, enunciated
Infants prefer it and they learn more words from this style
Major Language Development Theories
Established by Noam Chomsky
Language Acquisition Device (LAD): innate system that permits children to combine words into
grammatical consistent novel utterances to understand the meaning of sentences they hear.
Universal grammar: a built in storehouse of rules that apply to all human languages
Support for the nativist perspective:
There is a surprising ease of language acquisition: grammar is a complex tool and because children are
bad at inferring rules they acquire language effortlessly and quickly
Language is a unique property to humans
Pluripotential nature of input: example of telling the child to “look at the car” in a specific scene. So
when the mother points to the car, how does the child know she is referring to the whole car and not part
Sensitive period for development
Case of Genie
The brain is able to learn a primary language during a certain early period and more difficult to learn later.
In this time the child must receive language input. Genie spent her time alone from 20 months13 years. She had minimal interaction and did not talk during
childhood, when she was discovered she had no language skills. Four years later she developed language.
She acquired words, could put them in sentences but challenged in grammar.
Language is basically a social skill and children gradually master the rules of language by paying
attention to others.
Psychometric Approach: it is a product oriented approach and is largely concerned with outcomes, results
and it is best known for coming up with ways of measuring intelligence
Definitions of Intelligence
View of intelligence as a single entity
Use factor analysis proposed a general intelligence (g)
Cattel: 2 types of intelligence
Fluid intelligence: basic info processing
Crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge and experience
Thurstone: he argues that intelligence is made up of separate factor called primary mental abilities
Carroll: he proposed an integration of competing views of intelligence, the three stratum theory of
intelligence Intelligence Testing
Sometimes tests knowledge that is not known in all SES sectors or cultural groups.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ): measure of someone’s intelligence relative to that of other children of the
Stability of IQ:
The older the child at the time of the first testing, the better the prediction of later IQ. The closer the time
the 2 testing periods are, the stringer the relationship between the scores. The majority of children show
Recent perspectives of IQ
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Claim that people have 8 kinds of intelligence, a multidimensional view of intelligences. Each
intelligence is a unique biological basis and a distinct course of development influence by your
Linguistic, logicomathematical, musical, spatial, bodilykinesthetic, naturalist, interpersonal,
Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence
Ability to achieve success in life, given one’s personal standards within your context
Your ability to reflect on your strength and weakness and uses these in your environment in order to
*Social Development Psychoanalytic Theories: emerged in the mid20 century when people wanted to know how to fix child’s
emotional problems. Stress the continuity of individual differences. The early experiences shape
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory: we go through conflicts and how we resolve them determines your ability
to learn, get along wit others and cope with anxiety.
View of children’s nature: behavior is motivated by the need to satisfy basic biological drives.
Psychic energy: biologically based, instinctual drives that fuel behavior, thoughts and feelings.
Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are erotically sensitive
At each stage you encounter a conflict and how you resolve effects you later in life.
ID: the biological drives with which the infant is born, the earliest personality structure. The unconscious
and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure.
EGO: emerges in the first year and is the rational, logical, problemsolving component of personality. It is
ruled by the reality principle and develops out of the need to resolve conflicts between id and society.
SUPEREGO: it develops during the ages of 3 to 6 and is your conscience which enables you to control
your behavior based on what you think is right and what you think is wrong. It is based on internalization.
Oral (1 year) ▯ primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral
activity. During this stage, the mother is established as the strongest
Anal (13) ▯ primary source of pleasure comes from defecation
Phallic (36) ▯ localization of pleasure in genetalia
Super ego emerge at this time= conscience
Oedipus and electra complex
Latency (612) ▯ channeling of sexual energy into socially acceptable
Genital (12+ years) ▯ sexual maturation is complete and sexual
intercourse becomes a major goal.
Erikson’s Psychosocial theory: build off of Freud’s theory and added the contributing role of context
Eight age related stages, and each of them is characterized by a specific crisis that the individual must
resolve. If nto resolved before the next stage, will continue to struggle.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Trust vs mistrust (1) ▯ developing trust in other people is a crucial step
Autonomy vs shame and doubt (13.5) ▯ challenge is to achieve a string sense of autonomy while adjusting
to increased social demands Initiative vs guilt (46) ▯ Resolved when the child develops high standards and initiative to meet them
without being crushed by worry about not being able to measure up
Industry vs inferiority (6puberty) ▯ child must master cognitive and social skills, learn to work
industriously and play well with others
Identity vs role confusion (adolescentsearly adulthood) ▯ adolescents must resolve question of who they
really are or live in confusion about what roles they should play as adults.
Identity Achievement: integration various aspects of self into a coherent whole that is stable over time
Identity crisis: is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at oneself
Erikson & Freud’s stances on issues of development
Both are stage theories that stress discontinuity in development
Stress the individual differences across development and the continuity of these
Emphasize the biological underpinning of developmental stages interacting with the child’s experience
Learning and Ecological Theories
Emphasize the role of external factors in shaping personality and social behaviors. They focus on
mechanisms of change and argue that individual differences arise because of different histories or
reinforcement and observation.
Behaviorism: directly observable events, stimuli and responses are appropriate focus of study
Apply classical conditioning to children
“Little Albert” experiment demonstrated the power of classical conditioning
systematic desensitization: form of therapy based on classical conditioning in which initially debilitating
responses to a given stimulus are gradually deconditioned
Skinner’s operant conditioning
Child’s behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of reinforcers and can be decreased
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Learning is dependent on basic cognitive processes of attending to others, encoding what you observe,
sorting the info in memory and then retrieving it to reproduce the behavior
Emphasizes modeling, known as modeling and observational learning
Children exposed to the violet model tended to imitate the exact behavior they had observed when the
adult was no longer present.
The results indicated that while children of both genders in the nonaggressive group did exhibit less
aggression than the control group, boys who had observed an oppositesex model behavior non
aggressively were more likely than those in the control group to engage in violence
Vicarious reinforcement: Discovered that children’s tendency to reproduce what they learned depended on vicarious
reinforcement (i.e., whether the person whose actions they observed was rewarded or punished)
Observing someone else receive a reward or punishment for the behavior affects the subsequent
reproduction of the behavior.
Children can quickly acquire new behavior simply as a result of observing others, and their tendency to
reproduce what they have learned depends on whether the person whose actions they observed was
rewarded or punished
Urie Bronfenbrenner presents the child’s environment as series of nested structure
Microsystem: immediate, bidirectional environment that a person experiences.