COMPLETE Personality Theories Notes: Part 2 -- got a 4.0 in the course!

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Department
Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology
Course
APSY 2240
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 14 “Love and Hate” 11/21/2013 *Personality of Hate ­Biological Explanations of Hate ~Ethological Explanations ethology is the study of animal behavior patterns in natural environments  konrad Lorenz and Eibl­Eibesfeldt characterized aggression as the product of adaptive evolutionary process. Hatred is innate because  aggression was adaptive in the evolution of our own species. Mutant members of a species too had to be  eliminates if it is in our genes it cannot be halted ~Brain Disorders well known from experiments that stimulation of certain brain centers can produce intense unremitting rage biochemical brain imaging and genetic studies all point to disorders of serotonin and dopamine, key  neurotransmitters in excess impulsivity and aggression  ~Gene­Environment Interactions problematic parenting including various forms of neglect or abuse is associated with hateful, aggressive  behavior in children 1) Twin studies, adoption studies and sibling studies reveal that genetic and environmental  factors contribut to aggressive, andtisocail behavior 2) There is evidence that some children are born with very difficult temperaments and can  evoke negative behaviors from frustrated parents ­Psychoanalytic Approaches to Hate Thanatos: according to Freud, the drive toward self destructive behavior or death Antisocial persoanily disorder: personality disorder in which and individual is excessively impulsive, violates  the rules of society and lack anxiety or guilt of behavior ­Neoanalytic views of hate Jung hypothesixed that of the personality elements that are common to all human personality­ the  archetypes­ especially the shadow archetype, where the primitive, animal instincts reside Ruling type: according to Adler a type of person who proceeds for his or her own gain without consideration  of others Horney also looked to childhoodas time of life when an individual may become hateful, arguing that children  must feel safe during childhood to develop properly Repressed anxiety becomes basic society and neurosis Aggressive personality: according to Horney, a neurotic trend to see most others as being hostile, to believe  that only the most cunning and competent survive and to behave hatefully and hostilitneary toward  eachotehrs to maintain feeling of control and power According to Erikson, 3 unsuccessful resolved psychosocial stages may result in an individual who is angry,  hostil and hateful: 1) child who doesn’t develop an adequate trust during infancy will likely develop a pattern  of continuing to be distrustful later in life 2)child who is treated in a hostile manner when pursuing autonomy  may become destructive and angry 3)if the child’s initiative is punished and thwarted rather than realistically  channeled the child may fail to develop an adequate superego. This individual whose parents are so  woefully lacking may become hateful and aggressive adult ­Hate and Authoritarianism: Erich Fromm Fromm theorized that individuals feel more alone 
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