Study Guides (247,996)
United States (123,267)
Boston College (3,492)
COMM 1010 (44)
All (38)
Midterm

Test 2 Complete Notes (Got 92% on the test)

17 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Communication
Course
COMM 1010
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Non-Western Ancient Rhetoric • Only type of rhetoric people really ever studied was western rhetoric o Means that no one writing in English cared enough to look at any other rhetoric  Greeks and Romans seemed to be best • Now, rather than Greek rhetoric being the best, maybe it’s what we know the best o Not always westerners that have the best rhetors  have to push back against these notions Difficulties Studying Non-Western • Access  if we don’t read it, we don’t keep record of it o Some disappeared, very difficult to access • Training  have rhetorical critics interested in learning non-western but don’t speak dead/dying languages that don’t exist anymore that these rhetorical pieces are written in o Need specialists to read with  need proficiency in language/culture • Sense-making  with new info, we use ideas/concepts we already have to make sense of new o Try to use the Greek format to understand non-western rhetic  Doesn’t work because Greek rhetoric comes way after • Have to start from scratch • Expertise  no experts on the subject of non-western rhetoric • Comparative Rhetoric  compare 2 pieces of rhetoric back and forth o Not useful with new pieces • Use cultural rhetoric  aimed at looking at text/artifacts in their settings, time, context, etc. Ways to Study Cultural Rhetoric • Text  not always written, could be a picture • The body  rhetors performed with voices and bodies to convey meaning, depth, emotions, etc. • Space  where people actually spoke. Look at what it says about rhetoric, how it aided/reduced speech • Symbol of Systems  how it’s looked at visually. Most people didn’t read, so rhetoric was orally performed o Needed clothing, action, posture, behavior to induce audience’s memories Philosophical Issues • Issues of focus  need huge body of expertise. Have to shift area of focus/expertise and move into study of ancient language and culture o Lose touch with rhetoric because focus on something else • Goal of rhetoric  create a better, higher functioning democracy o Not accomplishing goal if start to focus on language and culture  Arguable: just because we moved away from culture, doesn’t mean we don’t want to help democracy. Expanding knowledge so when looking to build stronger democracy, you have a larger base to work with Pan Chao • 1 and 2 century in China o Teacher and librarian  caught a lucky break because brother died and was appointed this position  Fulfilled this role for the emperor • Focused on roles of Chines women at the time o Giving instruction to succeed in life, not bring power Sa Shonagon • 6 century Japan o Could read/ write Chinese  considered extremely intelligent, unheard of for women to have these skills • Lady in waiting to Emperor Sadako • Wrote essays on courts life • Names things in rhetoric on how to understand them o Embarrassing things: servants talking too loud, man you love gets drunk, etc. • Shows us that certain things haven’t changed that much since o People are people Watts, J. “Story-List-Sanction” • Practice in old texts o Persuasion has 3 parts: story (past), list (present), sanction (future) • King tells story about how fantastic he is  best person ever, impressive lineage o List things he has done for the community, things that make him incredible (temples, food, incomes, etc.)  Sanction  proven how he is incredible today. If you mess with that, you’ll be doomed by the gods forever • Made sure people didn’t mess with his power • Greeks won’t recognize this sermonic rhetoric Wolfe K. • Right use of words o Most Japanese rhetoric was written in Chinese  Hesitant to say experienced in Japanese rhetoric  can talk tentatively though • Focuses on humans of all creation, no leader o Way of being • Norito = prayer used in ancient Japanese rhetoric  poetic o No hallmarks of persuasion. Maybe some things are just about understanding. Compelling religion. • Based on action of individual and what they do Johnson-Sheehan (Irish Rhetoric) • Ireland was not affected by the dark ages (Separated from England) o Did their own thing from Greeks and rest of Europe • Way people got you to remember things was through performance, saying things in the same patterns, repetition, anything that got people to recall o Irish had Druids  interested in magic and persuasion through mystery, mythology, etc. • St. Patrick = important rhetor  horrible speaker o Could get people to identify with him (identification vs. persuasion) Kennedy, G.A. (India) • Rhetoric of caste o Brahmins = top level of class (philosophers)  Actively promoted caste system so people were persuaded they deserved to be in the caste they were in o Rhetoric of caste promoted understanding of caste system  Use it to make sense of things that happen to you  Untouchables weren’t allowed to call themselves by name • Name was given to them by the caste o Forced system of oppression • Closest development of rhetoric to Greece than anywhere else o Evidence of debates • Rhetoric of the Buddha o Buddha’s rhetoric = very different Key Concepts • Rhetoric doesn’t have to be directly persuasive to be powerful • Greeks used key forms of rhetoric that are still used today • Rhetoric doesn’t have to follow “rules” of rhetoric to create identification with audiences • Rhetoric can shape self-concept and behavior Aristotle and Rhetoric • Aristotle: o 400 BC – 320 BC o Trained as biologist by parents  Uncle introduced him to rhetoric • Studied at Plato’s Academy o Disagreed with Plato that there was an absolute reality  Said that we can find truth through observation • Truth is rooted in experience o Wrote more than 150 books of rhetoric (On Rhetoric) o Interesting ideas on truth and justice  Believed they were the best and going to rise to the surface • If they don’t, rhetor was somehow screwed up o Doesn’t explain HOW to know truth and justice  Innate gift? Or see intrinsically possible? o 4-fold function of Rhetoric  1) Uphold truth and justice and play down their opposites • Should naturally happen  2) Teach in suitable way to popular audience • Didn’t think audiences were uneducated o Need to teach TO not AT them • Learning can be pleasant, not a chore  3) Analyze both sides of a question • If we don’t look at the negative side of an argument, can’t make the strongest/compelling argument  4) Enable one to defend themselves • Some people can’t physically defend themselves but everyone should be able to mentally defend themselves Forms of Proof • Fundamental parts of basically everything • Logos (logic), Pathos (emotion), Ethos (character) • Logos is bound in logic/theory  pathos/ethos • Two types of logos: syllogism and Enthymeme • Syllogism = statement in which truth/conclusion is inferred from the truth of 2 premises o Major premise  universal o Minor premise  backs up major premise o Conclusion  derived from the set of two • Example: o All men are mortal  major o Socrates is a man  minor o Socrates is mortal  conclusion • Universal principle has to be included  not an opinion, always applies to all the things • Enthymeme = syllogism based on probabilities, signs, and examples in the sphere of human affairs • Syllogism is to logic as enthymeme is to rhetoric o Enthymeme = rhetorical syllogism • We can prove syllogism, not about persuasion, scientific proof • Example of enthymeme: o All kids love candy  major o My daughter is a kid  minor o My daughter loves candy  conclusion • Example of Syllogism: o Dogs have four legs o Bananas is a dog o Bananas has four legs • Example of Enthymeme: o BC students have high SATs o BC students are academically intelligent o High SAT scores indicate intelligence • Enthymeme is constructed by audience and speaker o If you don’t say the conclusion but give a premise, can think of the conclusion easily o Position audience to come up with answer • Pathos = use of human emotions to compel/persuade • Ehtos = character of the speaker o Person’s trustworthiness, goodwill, etc. Forms of Discourse/Types of Speech • Deliberative  speech focused on advocating for certain types of behavior, focused on the future • Forensic  debate, defending/attacking an issue, flaw, etc. Often reflects the past • Epideictic  focuses on present, speaking done in ceremonies • Inventio  content/message, where we put all our appeals (eths, pathos, logos) • Disposito  arrangement/audience analysis, understanding how audience gets info • Style and delivery Epideictic Speaking • Historical characteristic  speeches about praise or blame (Aristotle) • Recently though in Argumentative Theory Perspective thoughts were that there was more to epideictic speaking o The New Rhetoric  more than praise and blame. It is prepatory to action  Has ceremonial purpose but the speaker who is usually a public leader is trying to make people in the future primed to make choices they want to make aligned with the leader • Not always prepatory because speakers Epideictic works are not always leaders and not always about future problems (could be about present-day stuff/immediate concern) o Speech Acts Theory by Beale  epideictic speaking is performance only: delivery and style, nothing else  Performance is important because gives audience passion and interest but there’s more than that to speaking o Audience and Judgement  not about argument itself but how well the speaker speaks o Audience and Radiance of Being  about audience and speakers sharing a connection Condit’s Family Characteristics • Defintion/understanding • Shaping/Sharing • Display/Entertainment • Explain social life or event in terms of audience’s values/beliefs o Targeted to audience • If successfully connects to audience, speaker gains social power, leading to more followers o About creating SHARED experiences • Shaping/sharing  shaping your understanding of world, can be fantastic or horrible for society because changes perspective of social world o When people understand something, feel compelled to act • Display/Entertainment  speakers are allowed to express creativity and ingenuity with speech with leaders it provides a window to see into humane capacities of leaders o Will take audiences’ regular experience and make it more meaningful and powerful than before Roman Rhetoric • Move from Greek to Roman rhetoric • Aristotle died in 322 BC o Cicero (next great rhetor) born in 106 BC  Big gap between them • Aristotle kept peoples’ hands full with his work after his death o Rome = trying to take over Greece  power struggle (323 BC = Alexander the Great died and began great push for power) • 202 BC = Battle of Carthidg
More Less

Related notes for COMM 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit