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Test 2 Complete Notes (Got 92% on the test)

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COMM 1010
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Non-Western Ancient Rhetoric • Only type of rhetoric people really ever studied was western rhetoric o Means that no one writing in English cared enough to look at any other rhetoric  Greeks and Romans seemed to be best • Now, rather than Greek rhetoric being the best, maybe it’s what we know the best o Not always westerners that have the best rhetors  have to push back against these notions Difficulties Studying Non-Western • Access  if we don’t read it, we don’t keep record of it o Some disappeared, very difficult to access • Training  have rhetorical critics interested in learning non-western but don’t speak dead/dying languages that don’t exist anymore that these rhetorical pieces are written in o Need specialists to read with  need proficiency in language/culture • Sense-making  with new info, we use ideas/concepts we already have to make sense of new o Try to use the Greek format to understand non-western rhetic  Doesn’t work because Greek rhetoric comes way after • Have to start from scratch • Expertise  no experts on the subject of non-western rhetoric • Comparative Rhetoric  compare 2 pieces of rhetoric back and forth o Not useful with new pieces • Use cultural rhetoric  aimed at looking at text/artifacts in their settings, time, context, etc. Ways to Study Cultural Rhetoric • Text  not always written, could be a picture • The body  rhetors performed with voices and bodies to convey meaning, depth, emotions, etc. • Space  where people actually spoke. Look at what it says about rhetoric, how it aided/reduced speech • Symbol of Systems  how it’s looked at visually. Most people didn’t read, so rhetoric was orally performed o Needed clothing, action, posture, behavior to induce audience’s memories Philosophical Issues • Issues of focus  need huge body of expertise. Have to shift area of focus/expertise and move into study of ancient language and culture o Lose touch with rhetoric because focus on something else • Goal of rhetoric  create a better, higher functioning democracy o Not accomplishing goal if start to focus on language and culture  Arguable: just because we moved away from culture, doesn’t mean we don’t want to help democracy. Expanding knowledge so when looking to build stronger democracy, you have a larger base to work with Pan Chao • 1 and 2 century in China o Teacher and librarian  caught a lucky break because brother died and was appointed this position  Fulfilled this role for the emperor • Focused on roles of Chines women at the time o Giving instruction to succeed in life, not bring power Sa Shonagon • 6 century Japan o Could read/ write Chinese  considered extremely intelligent, unheard of for women to have these skills • Lady in waiting to Emperor Sadako • Wrote essays on courts life • Names things in rhetoric on how to understand them o Embarrassing things: servants talking too loud, man you love gets drunk, etc. • Shows us that certain things haven’t changed that much since o People are people Watts, J. “Story-List-Sanction” • Practice in old texts o Persuasion has 3 parts: story (past), list (present), sanction (future) • King tells story about how fantastic he is  best person ever, impressive lineage o List things he has done for the community, things that make him incredible (temples, food, incomes, etc.)  Sanction  proven how he is incredible today. If you mess with that, you’ll be doomed by the gods forever • Made sure people didn’t mess with his power • Greeks won’t recognize this sermonic rhetoric Wolfe K. • Right use of words o Most Japanese rhetoric was written in Chinese  Hesitant to say experienced in Japanese rhetoric  can talk tentatively though • Focuses on humans of all creation, no leader o Way of being • Norito = prayer used in ancient Japanese rhetoric  poetic o No hallmarks of persuasion. Maybe some things are just about understanding. Compelling religion. • Based on action of individual and what they do Johnson-Sheehan (Irish Rhetoric) • Ireland was not affected by the dark ages (Separated from England) o Did their own thing from Greeks and rest of Europe • Way people got you to remember things was through performance, saying things in the same patterns, repetition, anything that got people to recall o Irish had Druids  interested in magic and persuasion through mystery, mythology, etc. • St. Patrick = important rhetor  horrible speaker o Could get people to identify with him (identification vs. persuasion) Kennedy, G.A. (India) • Rhetoric of caste o Brahmins = top level of class (philosophers)  Actively promoted caste system so people were persuaded they deserved to be in the caste they were in o Rhetoric of caste promoted understanding of caste system  Use it to make sense of things that happen to you  Untouchables weren’t allowed to call themselves by name • Name was given to them by the caste o Forced system of oppression • Closest development of rhetoric to Greece than anywhere else o Evidence of debates • Rhetoric of the Buddha o Buddha’s rhetoric = very different Key Concepts • Rhetoric doesn’t have to be directly persuasive to be powerful • Greeks used key forms of rhetoric that are still used today • Rhetoric doesn’t have to follow “rules” of rhetoric to create identification with audiences • Rhetoric can shape self-concept and behavior Aristotle and Rhetoric • Aristotle: o 400 BC – 320 BC o Trained as biologist by parents  Uncle introduced him to rhetoric • Studied at Plato’s Academy o Disagreed with Plato that there was an absolute reality  Said that we can find truth through observation • Truth is rooted in experience o Wrote more than 150 books of rhetoric (On Rhetoric) o Interesting ideas on truth and justice  Believed they were the best and going to rise to the surface • If they don’t, rhetor was somehow screwed up o Doesn’t explain HOW to know truth and justice  Innate gift? Or see intrinsically possible? o 4-fold function of Rhetoric  1) Uphold truth and justice and play down their opposites • Should naturally happen  2) Teach in suitable way to popular audience • Didn’t think audiences were uneducated o Need to teach TO not AT them • Learning can be pleasant, not a chore  3) Analyze both sides of a question • If we don’t look at the negative side of an argument, can’t make the strongest/compelling argument  4) Enable one to defend themselves • Some people can’t physically defend themselves but everyone should be able to mentally defend themselves Forms of Proof • Fundamental parts of basically everything • Logos (logic), Pathos (emotion), Ethos (character) • Logos is bound in logic/theory  pathos/ethos • Two types of logos: syllogism and Enthymeme • Syllogism = statement in which truth/conclusion is inferred from the truth of 2 premises o Major premise  universal o Minor premise  backs up major premise o Conclusion  derived from the set of two • Example: o All men are mortal  major o Socrates is a man  minor o Socrates is mortal  conclusion • Universal principle has to be included  not an opinion, always applies to all the things • Enthymeme = syllogism based on probabilities, signs, and examples in the sphere of human affairs • Syllogism is to logic as enthymeme is to rhetoric o Enthymeme = rhetorical syllogism • We can prove syllogism, not about persuasion, scientific proof • Example of enthymeme: o All kids love candy  major o My daughter is a kid  minor o My daughter loves candy  conclusion • Example of Syllogism: o Dogs have four legs o Bananas is a dog o Bananas has four legs • Example of Enthymeme: o BC students have high SATs o BC students are academically intelligent o High SAT scores indicate intelligence • Enthymeme is constructed by audience and speaker o If you don’t say the conclusion but give a premise, can think of the conclusion easily o Position audience to come up with answer • Pathos = use of human emotions to compel/persuade • Ehtos = character of the speaker o Person’s trustworthiness, goodwill, etc. Forms of Discourse/Types of Speech • Deliberative  speech focused on advocating for certain types of behavior, focused on the future • Forensic  debate, defending/attacking an issue, flaw, etc. Often reflects the past • Epideictic  focuses on present, speaking done in ceremonies • Inventio  content/message, where we put all our appeals (eths, pathos, logos) • Disposito  arrangement/audience analysis, understanding how audience gets info • Style and delivery Epideictic Speaking • Historical characteristic  speeches about praise or blame (Aristotle) • Recently though in Argumentative Theory Perspective thoughts were that there was more to epideictic speaking o The New Rhetoric  more than praise and blame. It is prepatory to action  Has ceremonial purpose but the speaker who is usually a public leader is trying to make people in the future primed to make choices they want to make aligned with the leader • Not always prepatory because speakers Epideictic works are not always leaders and not always about future problems (could be about present-day stuff/immediate concern) o Speech Acts Theory by Beale  epideictic speaking is performance only: delivery and style, nothing else  Performance is important because gives audience passion and interest but there’s more than that to speaking o Audience and Judgement  not about argument itself but how well the speaker speaks o Audience and Radiance of Being  about audience and speakers sharing a connection Condit’s Family Characteristics • Defintion/understanding • Shaping/Sharing • Display/Entertainment • Explain social life or event in terms of audience’s values/beliefs o Targeted to audience • If successfully connects to audience, speaker gains social power, leading to more followers o About creating SHARED experiences • Shaping/sharing  shaping your understanding of world, can be fantastic or horrible for society because changes perspective of social world o When people understand something, feel compelled to act • Display/Entertainment  speakers are allowed to express creativity and ingenuity with speech with leaders it provides a window to see into humane capacities of leaders o Will take audiences’ regular experience and make it more meaningful and powerful than before Roman Rhetoric • Move from Greek to Roman rhetoric • Aristotle died in 322 BC o Cicero (next great rhetor) born in 106 BC  Big gap between them • Aristotle kept peoples’ hands full with his work after his death o Rome = trying to take over Greece  power struggle (323 BC = Alexander the Great died and began great push for power) • 202 BC = Battle of Carthidg
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