STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2
Week 6: Chapter 16
1. Publicity definition: the practice of getting people or products mentioned in the news
and entertainment media in order to get members of the public interested in them.
a. Public relations involves “information, activities and policies by which
corporations and other organizations seek to create attitudes favorable to
themselves and their work, and to counter adverse attitudes”.
b. Public relations activities need not involve mass communication. Much of PR
firm’s plans for the state legislators, for example, may involve on-on-one
lobbying which is a straightforward form of interpersonal communication.
c. Difference between advertising and PR: advertisers pay for space / time they
receive, PR practitioners typically do not. Advertising clearly states its presence.
PR typically hides its presence and sponsor.
2. One-way model of public relations: a model of PR that concentrates on sending
persuasive facts that benefit the client to the press, without any attempts at systematically
learning about the populations whom the client wants to persuade.
a. Concentrates on sending persuasive facts that benefit the client to the press,
without any attempts at systematically learning about the population whom the
client wants to persuade.
3. Two-way model of public relations: first championed by a practitioner named Edward
Bernays in the 1920s, this model of PR draws upon the social sciences to carefully shape
the responses of audiences to the client’s views of the world.
4. Corporate communication departments: public relations units that typically have 3
functions: external relations activities involve expressing the company’s perspective to a
variety of entities outside the organization; internal relations involve being the voice of
the company to employees, union groups, and share shoulders; and media relations
handle calls with relations handle calls with journalists, provide the answers and
coordinate the interviews with executives.
a. External relations: Express the company’s perspective to a variety of entities
outside the organization. Public relations employees also act as lobbyists for their
company. That is, they try to convince state and federal legislators to pass certain
laws that will benefit the company or to eliminate rules that may hinder the firm’s
b. Internal relations: represent the voice of the company to employees, union
groups and shareholders.
c. Media relations: When journalists call companies wanting to speak to a
particular executive; media relations handle these calls and coordinate interviews.
5. Agency holding companies: firms that own large ad agency networks, public relations
firms, and a multitude of branding, market research, and marketing communication firms.
6. The Big Four: These are agency holding firms owned by one of these: Omnicon, WPP,
Interpublic and Publicis.
7. How PR firms help their clients
i. Strategies: broad plans or approaches for meeting objectives
ii. Tactics: the particular activities that put strategies into action 8. Corporate communications: involves the creation and presentation of a company’s
overall image to it’s employees and to the public at large. Executives want public to
believe that the company is a good corporate citizen.
9. Financial communications: involves helping a client’s interactions with lenders,
shareholders and stock market regulators proceed smoothly.
a. I.E. in 1995 IBM turned to PR firm Sard Verbinnen to support its attempt to buy
Lotus Development Company
b. The PR firm helped convince both companies and the government that folding
Lotus into IBM would benefit both companies. They succeeded.
10. Consumer communication: the process of stimulating sales from people who are in
their everyday, non employee roles.
a. I.e: H&K helped Cerveceria (Brazilian beverage) expand to Guatemala
11. Business-to-business communication: the process of stimulating sales from people in
their roles as company employees.
a. PR firm convinced International Olympics Committee (IOC) to choose city of
London for Olympics.
b. Having more than 27 H&K offices achieved more foreign media coverage than
other bids combined.
12. Public affairs PR: public relations that focuses on government issues
13. International relations PR: ascertaining the company’s strategic interests relative to
governments outside the United States and soliciting the help of the U.S. government in
areas of difficulty. PR agencies also help foreign companies and governments establish
good relations withAmerican officials.
14. Crisis management: range of activities that helps a company respond to its business
partners, general public or government in the event of a disaster.
a. Burson-Marsteller’s handling of 1983 crisis involving Tylenol. It was said that
Tylenol had been used to kill 7 people. Reassuring people that it is a safe product.
15. Media relations: covers all dealings with reporters and other members of media
organizations who might tell a story about a client.
a. School spreading word about good things a sports team has done.
16. Press release (features, intentions, press contact): a short essay that is written in the
form of an objective news story.
17. Integrated marketing communications (IMC): a type of PR, the goal of which is to
blend (integrate) historically different ways to communicate to an organization’s various
audiences and markets.
a. Branded entertainment: involves associating a company or product with media
activities in ways that are not as obviously intrusive as advertisements. I.e. the
product name is associated with an activity that the target audience enjoys
i. Event marketing: involves creating compelling circumstances that
command attention in ways that are relevant to the product or firm. Take
place at sports venues…grassroots, guerrilla. Non professionals to
promote the items.
ii. Event sponsorship: product is the focus of the activity. Companies pay
money to be associated with the activities that target audiences enjoy. i.e.
Clorox company sponsored Keith Urban’s tour. iii. Product placement: takes place when a firm manages to insert its brand
in a positive way into fiction or nonfiction content.
1. i.e. coke or ford onAmerican Idol.
18. Relationship marketing: involves a determination by the firm to maintain long-term
contact with its customers. Mailings of magazines or brochures etc… Week 7: chapter 15
19. Hard sell ad
20. Soft sell ad
21. Advertising agency: a company that specializes in the creation of ads for placement in
media that accept payment for exhibiting those ads
a. Volney Palmer=credited with starting first ad agency. Space salesman.
22. Brand: a name and image associated with a particular product.
23. Ad campaign: a carefully considered approach to creating and circulating messages
about a product over a specific period with particular goals in mind.
a. Includes research on the marketplace and on consumers.
24. Reason-why ads: ads that list the benefits of a product in ways that would move the
consumer to purchase it.
25. Image ads: ads that tie the product into a set of positive feelings.
26. Representation firms: in radio, companies that sell time to advertisers on many radio
a. Ad practitioners wanted radio to provide proof of the size of their audience.
27. Agency holding companies: advertising conglomerates
a. Umbrella firms that own 2 or more ad agencies, plus research firms, public
relations consultancies, or other organizations that contribute to the business of
selling products, services, or ideas.
28. Client conflicts: serving companies that compete with one another.
a. There’s a fear that confidential info might be shared and get to competitors.
29. Business-to-business agencies: work for companies that are interested in persuading
personnel in other companies to buy from them instead of from competitors.
a. i.e. a zipper manufacturer might want to sell to a pants company.
30. Consumer agencies: work for advertisers that want to persuade people in their nonwork
roles to buy products.
31. General ad agency: invites business from all types of advertisers
32. Specialty ad agency: tackles only certain types of clients (or accounts)
33. Internet agency: type of specialty agency that works both in consumer and business-to-
a. Healthcare industry also does this buy providing to pharmaceutical companies as
well as individual consumers.
34. Traditional ad agency: creates and distributes persuasive messages with the aim of
creating a favorable impression of the product in the minds of target consumers that will
lead them to buy it in stores.
35. Direct-marketing agencies: not just create favorable image, but shape consumer
mailings, phone marketing contacts, commercials etc…to elicit purchases right then and
a. Can be fast talking commercials; people either buy the product or they don’t.
36. Agency networks: advertising agencies with branch offices in a number of different
a. ***the biggest advertising agencies tend to be traditional, consumer oriented
37. Stand-alone firms: 38. Branding: creating a specific image of a product that makes it stand out in the
a. Would you buy Coke or the off brand “tastes like the big guys”?
39. Location-based advertising: the process of sending commercial messages to people
based on their geographic position.
40. Click-through ad: a web-based advertisement that, when clicked on, takes the user to
the advertiser’s website.
41. Ad clutter: used to refer to the competing messages facingAmericans virtually
everywhere they turn, at every moment.
a. People trying to put adds EVERYWHERE. Week 8: chapter 9
42. Magazines: collections of materials (stories, ads, poems, etc…) that editors will believe
will interest their audience.
43. Characteristics of a magazine
a. Topic: focused on a specific demographic
i. Expert info, in-depth
c. Format / design: appealing to the eye
d. Easy to handle
f. Journalistic differences
i. Deadlines (not as concrete)
ii. Topics (more “interesting”)
v. Impact (more impact than a daily newspaper)
45. Investigative journalism:
46. Personality profile
47. Travel writing
48. Literary journalism
49. Brands: a name and image associated with a particular product
50. Muckraker:American journalists, novelists and critics (early 1900s) attempted to expose
the abuses of business and the corruption in politics.
51. Business-to-business magazine: aka a trade magazine, focuses on topics related to a
particular occupation, profession or industry.
a. Standard Rate and Data Service that collects information about magazine
audiences and ad rates and sells to advertisers and has an entire reference
directory to business magazines.
b. Trade magazine
52. Consumer magazines: magazines aimed at the general public
a. Vanity fair, cosmo, spin etc…
53. Service magazines:
54. Literary reviews: small-circulation periodicals about lit and related topics; usually
funded by scholarly associations, universities or foundations.
a. Journal of Communication
55. Academic journals: small-circulation periodicals that cover scholarly topics, with
articles typically edited + written by professors / other university-affiliated researchers.
56. Newsletters: a small-circulation periodical, typically 4-8 pgs long that is composed and
printed in a simple style. Usually weekly or bi-weekly.
57. Comic books: a periodical that tells a story through pictures as well as words.
58. Controlled circulation magazine: a magazine whose production and mailing is
supported not by charging readers, but (typically) through advertising revenues; the
publisher, rather than the reader decides who gets the magazine. a. Medical economics: for doctors about the business of medicine. Magazine has a
list of doctors whom advertisers would likely target.
59. Custom magazine: a controlled circulation magazine that is typically created for a
company with the goal of reaching out to a specific audience that the company wants to
a. i.e. American Way goes toAmericanAirlines flights.
60. Paid circulation magazine: a magazine that supports its production and mailing by
charging readers money, either