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Public Speaking Notes Quiz 2.docx

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COMM 1030
Rita Rosenthal

Toulmin Model 1. Claim- the position or claim being argued for, conclusion of an argument a. fact: what was, what is, what will be b. value: whether something is good or bad c. policy: here is what we should do about it, solution (should or must) 2. Data/Grounds/Reason/Evidence- reasons or supporting evidence that bolster the claim a. Statistics b. Examples c. Sources 3. Warrant- the principle, provision, or chain of reasoning the connect the grounds/reason to the claim a. Often not stated b. “Because of this….now this is true” c. Generalized: just in general because of all of this, it must be true d. Authoritative/Expert: because this expert says it, it must be true e. Analogical: similar to another situation which makes it true 4. Qualifier- how strong the claim is, within the claim itself a. Most of the time b. 50% of the time this might happen c. It could happen… d. All the time 5. Rebuttal- when the claim may not be true a. Portrays the other side of the argument b. “Results may vary” Is it logical, why or why not? Propositions Fact: The Communication Dept. is the largest Value: The Communication Dept. has the best teachers Policy: The Communication Dept. should do this Routes to persuasion o Central route (long term) o Based on evidence (Logos) o Peripheral route (short term) o How we emotionally respond Theories of Persuasion 1. Elaboration Likelihood Method a. Get audience to elaborate on ideas (2 weeks later) b. How it relates to them 2. Affective Cognitive Dissonance Emotional/Logical/State of Imbalance a. people don’t like to feel they are out of balance so emotional or logical parts need to change 3. Attribution Theory a. Look for a cause or reason b. Discounting effect: when you come up with a different reason, reduces persuasive speech 4. Self-Perception Theory a. The audience has to see it as an issue Persuasion Appeals • Evidence • Em
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