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[VERSION 2] Complete Interpersonal Communication Notes - Part 1 (got 4.0 in the course)

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Boston College
COMM 1040

Chapter 1: Interpersonal Communication - A First Look▯ ▯ Communication: process involving the deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning; observe or give meaning to behavior▯ Intrapersonal communication: think or talk to yourself▯ Interpersonal communication: ongoing, ever-changing process occurs when you interact with another person▯ Dyad = two people communicating with each other, relationship▯ Modern day use digital media▯ Parties for interpersonal communication are a duo: a couple, a pair, or perhaps adversaries; dyads can also be groups of 3/more individuals... often separate into pairings and potential coalitions▯ Quality of relationship along a continuum (intimate -> impersonal)▯ Goal = to treat one another as genuine/unique persons, not objects/people playing roles▯ More personal = more interdependent... share thoughts and feelings with each other▯ Intrinsic rewards = emotionally, intellectually & spiritually fulfilling▯ Extrinsic rewards = job promotion Ex. maintaining professional working relationships with others to help us reach our goals▯ Effectiveness depends on extent to which we practice & exhibit skills▯ • Not born effective... need to learn▯ • Culture, gender, environment & individual’s goals affect person’s communication skills▯ • Don’t use scenarios/scripts that are doomed to fail▯ • Don’t take others for granted▯ • Guided by knowledge & skill▯ Interpersonal communication:▯ • helps us work thru problems, enhancing our feelings of self-worth▯ • Interpersonal competence: ability to communicate effectively▯ • improve our ability to adapt to changing world▯ • connect with others in more effective ways▯ ▯ Essential Elements of Interpersonal Communication▯ People Senders and receivers of communication messages Messages Content of communication; verbal/nonverbal, thru 5 senses Channels Media through which messages travel; skilled channel switchers Noise Interference with ability to send or receive messages; internal/external Feedback Information received in exchange for messages; how receiver interpreted Context Environmental, situational, or cultural setting in which communication take place Effect Result of a communication episode; emotional, physical, cognitive Role duality: simultaneous performance of the roles of sender and receiver by the members of a dyad▯ Internal noise: personal thoughts and feelings▯ External noise: sight, sound, smell, feel of environment▯ Positive feedback: responses that enhance behavior in progress▯ Negative feedback: responses that stop behavior in progress▯ Internal feedback: a person’s response to his or her own performance▯ External feedback: responses received from others▯ Low-monitored feedback: feedback this is sincere and spontaneous; delivered without careful planning▯ High-monitored feedback: feedback offered to serve a specific purpose; sent intentionally▯ Feedforward: sent prior to a message’s delivery as means of revealing something about message to follow▯ Phatic communication: superficial interaction designed to open channel between individuals▯ Context▯ • physical = specific location, appearance and condition▯ • psychological = interaction’s emotional dimensions, how individuals feel about & respond to each other▯ • temporal setting = time of day, history that parties share▯ • cultural = beliefs, values, rules of communication that affect your behavior▯ *cultural differences may confuse the other or lead to missing chances for effective & meaningful exchanges▯ Linear/unidirectional model: one direction only, omits both feedback and context; Ex. instructions▯ Interaction model: back and forth process, with feedback and context, but fails to capture the complexity▯ Transactional model: source and receiver responding to one another simultaneously, demonstrating that source and receiver continually influence one another▯ ▯ p. 14 Advantages & Disadvantages of Communication Models▯ ▯ How Does Interpersonal Communication Enhance Our Lives?▯ • Psychological▯ - one good relationship appears to be a prereq. of physical & psychological well-being▯ - learn how diff individs affect us▯ - develop self-awareness & maintain our sense of self▯ • Social▯ - begin & sustain relationships▯ - need for affection▯ - need for inclusion▯ - need for control▯ • Information▯ • Influence▯ ▯ 5 Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication▯ A dynamic process Ongoing, continuous, in a constant state of flux Unrepeatable & Unique Irreversible Learned Find over time what works for us and what doesn’t work if we remain conscious of communication Characterized by Operates as a complete entity, like a team functions wholeness & nonsummativity ▯ Reasoned sense making: ability to predict & account for behavior of a particular person▯ Retrospective sense making: making sense of our own behavior once it has occurred▯ ▯ 5 Comm Axioms = universally accepted principles▯ 1. You cannot not communicate 2. Interactions have content and relationship dimensions 3. Interactions are defined by how they are punctuated 4. Messages are verbal symbols and nonverbal cues 5. Exchanges are symmetrical or complementary ▯ Complementary relationship: based on difference in which parties engage in opposite behaviors▯ Cultural awareness: ability to understand role that cultural prescriptions play in shaping communication▯ Individualistic = stress individual goals, promote competition▯ Collectivistic = stress group goals, promote cooperation▯ High context = tradition bound, overly polite, indirect, less confrontational Ex. Asian cultures▯ Low context = direct, verbally explicit Ex. Western culture▯ Gender: societal characteristics associated with the biological categories of male and female▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Media▯ - same words convey diff messages depending on whether sent using face to face interaction, print, cell phone, video or podcast▯ - medium changes things, altering message, massaging contents▯ - broadens network of people we communicate with▯ - tech makes possible to connect without fear▯ ▯ Gaining Comm Competence▯ - knowledge▯ - recognize how relationships affect you▯ - opportunities to improve if you remain flexible and open▯ - act ethically, respect diversity, think critically▯ ▯ Chapter 2: The Impact of Self-Concept▯ - deep interest in each other and desire to be noticed▯ - our longing for connection and attention▯ ▯ Self-awareness: personal reflection on and monitoring of one’s own behavior▯ Self-concept: relatively stable set of perceptions one attributes to oneself; self identity; image we form of ourselves▯ Self-image: mental picture one has of oneself▯ Self-esteem: one’s appraisal of one’s own self-worth; self evaluation▯ (feeling good about the self and what we are capable of contributes to our performing well)▯ ▯ Theories Reveal How Others Shape Us:▯ Reflected appraisal theory: theory that states that the self a person presents is in large part baed on the way others categorize the individual, the roles they expect him or her to play, and the behaviors/traits they expect him/her to exhibit▯ (basically, we build a self-concept that reflects how we think others see us)▯ Social comparison theory: we assess how we measure up against others (that’s why we’re most comfortable interacting with others we perceive to be like us)▯ ▯ Perceived self: reflection of your self-concept; person one believes oneself to be when one is being honest with oneself▯ Ideal self: self you would like to be▯ Possible self: self that one might become someday; dream of becoming▯ Expected self: self that others assume one will exhibit▯ Impression management: exercising control over one’s behavior in an effort to make the desired impression▯ Dramaturgical approach to human interaction: explains the role that the skillful enacting of impression management plays in person to person interaction▯ • framing: defining a scene/situation in a way that helps others interpret its meaning in the way we desire▯ • scripting: identification of each actor’s role in the scene▯ • engaging dialogue: storytelling by using descriptive language and effective nonverbal cues to guide responses of other players▯ • performance - all these elements combined▯ • exemplification: we serve as an example or act as a role model for others▯ • promotion: elucidate our personal skills and accomplishments and/or particular vision▯ • face-work: take steps to protect our image by reducing negative aspects of ourselves visible to others▯ • ingratiation: employ techniques of agreement to make others believe us to be more attractive and likable and less threatening, harmful, or pernicious▯ ▯ Confirming response Supports self-appraisal Rejecting response Negates self-appraisal Disconfirming response Robs individual of a sense of self ▯ Self-efficacy: positive belief in your abilities and competence▯ Self-fulfilling prophecy: when we verbalize a prediction or internalize an expectation that comes true simply because we act as if it already were; our behavior increases the likelihood of an outcome▯ Positive Pygmalions: an individual who positively influences one’s perceptions of one’s own abilities▯ Ex. teachers causing their students to live up to the labels placed on them; teachers positive expectations positively influenced their treatment of the “blossoming” students▯ Negative Pygmalions: an individual who negatively influences one’s perceptions of one’s own abilities▯ Ex. people who hold low expectations for others typically results in others’ diminished performances▯ ▯ “Assess your strengths and shortcomings honestly, freeing yourself to reshape
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