Computers in Management Final Study Guide
Module 3: Technology Developments
System requirements – they identify what the software has to do, should be captured data from
the people who will be using the system, they are usually identified early in the development
System development life cycle – requirements to design to implementation to verification to
Agile development methodology – rapid development and testing of working materials, it is a
very interactive process that makes development faster and easier, it is a circular flow diagram
from implementation to delivery and feedback to iteration planning
Why do IT projects fail?
- Communication issues between the manager, the developer, and the client
- Lack of client input and unclear objectives (the client’s needs, managing their unrealistic
expectations, changing requirements and specifications)
- Lack of resources (money, technology, time)
- Technology is changing constantly so whatever you do could become obsolete
Powerless managers must communicate with the developers to tell them what the clinets’want, or else the
developers will just build whatever they want to build.
Opt-in setting – when you choose if you want to do something and actively make the effort to op-in to it.
Opt-out setting – when the box is already checked for you and you have to uncheck it, this makes it easier
to disclose our information because sometimes people don’t see the checked box and you have to make
the effort to opt-out.
Facebook Beacon – Facebook Beacon caused a controversy because it was posting what you bought on
other sites to your Facebook timeline.
How would you define information privacy?
- the ability to control when/how/and to what extent data is accessed and communicated
What are the main sources of information privacy issues?
- Privacy issues change because policies and technologies evolve. Also, our privacy preferences
evolve. When we are younger we are more lenient with what we put online, but when we are
older and looking for a job it can come back to haunt us. Other people can also disclose our
information without our permission. Are people fully rational in their privacy related decisions?
- No, we have cognitive biases and we don’t think rationally. We can’t calculate the cost-benefit
trade-off between exchanging our information to join websites or use apps.
What kind of information privacy issues has Facebook beacon created?
- People thought it was a huge invasion of privacy, and because it was opt-out many people didn’t
realize that their info about what they bought was being broadcasted.
Moore’s Law – processing power per dollar doubles every 18 months
Grid computing – When multiple PCs work together to solve a common problem, with the aid of special
Parallel Computing – When computers with multiple micro-processors work together simultaneously to
solve problems (one computer with many microprocessors)
Microprocessor – the central processing unit of the computer, or its brains. It accepts data as the input,
processes it, and then provides info as output
Optical fiber – high speed glass or plastic-lined cables used for networking and telecommunication
Magnetic Data Storage – systems that keep data stored on a magnetic material. Magnetic tape can store
data in a binary code.
What are the physical limitations to the advancements in IT?
- There are physical limits such as power and heat limitations. If there is too much going on in the
computer, it could overheat.
What is parallel computing (e.g., supercomputers)?
- When computers with multiple micro-processors work together simultaneously to solve problems
(one computer with many microprocessors)
What is grid computing? What are some of the real-life examples? What are the limitations?
- When multiple PCs work together to solve a common problem, with the aid of special software
What was special about Dell’s value chain? What was their main source of competitive advantage?
- Dell was well-known for its innovations in supply chain management, its direct sales model, and
they’re commitment to deliver PCs with specific user configurations. They only hold inventory
for 72 hours and have no warehouses.
How does Moore’s Law affect Dell’s value chain?
- Since technology depreciates so rapidly, they can’t hold inventory for that long because
something new and better is always coming along. Using the Resource-Based View of the firm (VRIN), explain why Dell has been struggling lately.
How does Dell respond to the challenges it has been experiencing lately
- Their supply chain is not as valuable as it used to be because Moore’s law has made IT much
- It’s not really rare anymore because most computers can do the same standard things. They do
offer customized products though.
- There are many substitutes to PCs like tablets and smart phones now.
Long-tail – when demand exists but they are not popular enough for stores to carry them. Netflix carries
many obscure titles that people want but can’t find anywhere else.
Collaborative filtering – technology that monitors trends among customers and uses this to personalize an
individual user’s experience.
Atoms to bits – when a brick and mortar business is turned digital (Blockbuster Netflix)
Start-ups vs. Giants –
Scale Economies – N