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Final

COMPLETE Environmental Geosciences: Resources&Pollution Notes - Part 15 [4.0ed the final exam]

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Department
Earth & Environmental Sciences
Course
EESC 1167
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Reading Notes 10/01/2013 ­Channel and Floodplain Evolution  stream flowing rapidly and gradient is steep result in steep sided valley, V shaped in cross section and  relatively straight meanders cut bank: when it is eroded on the outsde and downstream sided of meander, where the water flows  somewhat faster point bars: consisting of sediment deposit on the insides of meanders, built out banks in those parts of  channels braided streamsL sediment load large in relation to water volume may develop complex pattern of many channels flood plain: area into which strm spills over during floods oxbows: cutoff meanders ­Channelization general term for various modifications of the stream channel that are intended to increase the velocity of  water flow, volume of channel, or both ­Factors governing flood severity water involved and rate it enters stream system are major factos porosity and permeability topography and vegetation ­Flood Characteristics elevation of the water surface at any point is termed the stage of the stram flood stage: stream stage exceeds bank height crest: when the maximum stage is reached upstream floods: caused by locally intense rainstorms and dam failures flashfloods: variety of upstream floods, characterized by rapid rise of stream stage downstream floods: floods that affect large stream systems and large drainage basins result from prolonged rain over broad area or extensive regional snowmelt ­Flood Frequency Curves long term records make it possible to construct a curve showing discharge as a function of recurrence  interval for a particular stream or section of one  recurrence interval: how frequently a flood of that severity occurs on average for that stream  ­Levees raised banks along a stream channel ­Restrictive zoning and “floodproofing” ­Retention ponds and Diversion channels retention ponds: large basins that trap some of the surface runoff, keeping it flowing from flowing  immediately into the stream ­Sediment Transport traction load: heavier debris may be rolled, dragged, pushed along the bottom of the stream saltation: material of intermediate size may be carried in short hps along the stream bed  bed load: all the material collected suspended load: consists of material that is light enough to be moved along suspended in the stream,  supported by the flowing water gives water muddy appearance dissolved load: some substances completely dissolved load: total quantity of material that a stream transports capacity: measure of the total load of material that a stream can move ­Stream Hydrographs mapping fluctuations in stream stage or discharge  span long periods of time and construct picture of “normal” beh
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