Living Earth Reading Notes
Page 584594 10/24/2012
Temperature and precipitation are most important elements in a climate description because they have the
greatest influence on people
*The Koppen Classification
best known and most used for presenting the general world patterns of climates
uses mean monthly and annual values of temperature and precipitation
1) Humid Tropical: winterless climates; all months having a mean temperature above 18 C
2)Dry: Climates where evaporation exceeds precipitation, constant water deficiency.
3) Humid Middle Latitude: Mild winters; the average temperature of the coldest month is below 18C but
4) Humid Middle Latitude: Severe winters; average temperature of the coldest moth is 3C.
5) Polar: Summerless climates; average temperature of the warmest moth is below 10C.
*Humid Tropical Climates
Wet Tropical Climates
constantly high temperatures and year round rainfall in the wet tropics contributes to the most luxuriant
vegetation found in any climatic realm: tropical rainforest
10% of earth. From discontinuous belt 510 degrees into each hemisphere. Poleward margins marked by
Restricted to regions below 1000 meters
Temp avg 25C. Total precipitation exceed 200 cm.
Generally wet in all months even in the dry season.
Tropical Wet Dry
latitude pole ward of the west tropics and equator of the subtropical deserts lies a transitional climatic
region. Rainforest gives way to the savanna
rainfall is seasonal
alternating periods of rainfall and dryness are associated with well established moon cycle.
yearly precipitation is not as great as the potential loss of water by evaporation. D
separate between dry and humid climates use 3 formulas that involve 3 variations: annual precipitation,
average annual temperatures, and seasonal precipitation
within the regions defined by general water deficiency are 2 climactic types: arid or desert and semiarid or
steppe. ~Low Latitude Deserts and Steppes
lies in the vicinities o the Tropics of cancer and Capricorn
southern hemisphere, Australia dominate dry climates, 40% of continent.
Also found in Southern Africa and coastal Chile and Peru
~Middle Latitude Deserts and Steppes
Exist because of their positions in the deep interiors of large landmasses far removed from oceans, which
re the ultimate source of moisture for cloud formation and pr