test 2 study guide
II. The Federalist Papers (2/3-2/28)
1. What is Madison's definition of “faction”?
A number of citizens, whether a majority or minority, united
and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest,
adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and
aggregate interests of the community.
2. What are the methods of removing the causes or the effects of
Prevent the causes of faction: destroy liberty so that it would
no longer be a democracy; give all citizens the same opinions,
passions, and interests (not possible).
Contain the effects of faction: if faction is minority it can’t pose a
real threat, if a majority you have to a) prevent the interests from
existing in a majority or b) render majority unable to carry into
effect schemes of oppression based on those interests
3. Which of the methods of removing the causes or the effects of
faction does Madison
support, and why does he reject the rest?
Rejects the concept of eliminating liberty because its no
longer a democracy in that case and claims it is idealistic to
homogenize their thoughts; supports rendering the majority unable
to act directly on their ideas through representation
4. In what two ways does a Republic differ from a Democracy for
The delegation of government and the scale-ability of
government (functions well for both small and large groups of
people--applicable to the exponentially growing US of the time)
5. What psychological reason does Hamilton give as to why the national leaders will not seek
to infringe on the state leaders?
There are two different kinds of ambition: one leads a person
towards national government (where the concerns are more
interesting) and the other leads a person to local government.
Those that end up in national government are not concerned with
6. Why does Hamilton say that the danger will in fact be from state
leaders infringing on the
The people tend to be more committed to their local leaders
and therefore more loyal to them, which could pose a threat to
national authority. Local leaders are also more concerned with
their local communities and not as much the nation as a whole.
7. How does Hamilton believe his constitution will prevent a
situation like that in “ancient
feudal systems” where localized leaders were always contending
for power with the national
A balance of power between the national government and
local powers through the people.
8. What is Madison's definition of a “Republic”?
A government which derives all its powers directly or
indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by
persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period or
during good behavior. i.e. A system of government that is
dependent on indirect democracy in which the representatives
derive their power from the people.
9. Why does Madison say that the government he wishes to
constitute will be federal and not national, and why does such a distinction even matter?
The government is both national and federal because
authority resides in the majority of the people and the majority can
overthrow the government at any time. This is important because it
determines how direct the democracy is and how direct the
government’s control is.
10. What is Madison's definition of “tyranny”?
Tyranny is the accumulation of all powers into one hand,
whether the hand of one, few, or many and whether it be hereditary
or appointed. In other words, tyranny is un