Jan 24 Industrial Revolution
James Watt – created the Steam Engine generated by burning coal. He solved how to cool the
condenser. Continuously worked if there was still coal.
Matthew Boulton – Cotton Manufacture. He teamed up with James Watt to manufacture steam
engines. “I sell what all the world wants to have: power” (the ability to do work)
Abraham Darby – Cooked coal to make COKe. Could be used to make iron.
Coke – used to make iron.
Henry Cort – developed process of making good iron from the use of COKe.
John “Iron-mad” Wilkinson –
Josiah Wedgewood –
Robert Fulton – Invented the steam boat.
• Industrial revolution happened in Europe because it represents the triumph of the superior
• Europe created a society that was innovative, supported rapid technological change, supported
the movement structurally.
• Very few of these advantages would have been view as such, and these weren’t unique.
• Advantage in Europe: wickedly cold place; so much time and energy to keep the human body
warm. This is an advantage because they were sensitive to questions of energy supply, energy
efficiency. They had to respond to the coldness.
• Advantage in Europe (as well as in southern areas): educational advantage. Although most
Europeans were illiterate. They had a widespread of technological abilities. [ie. The candle stick
holder] anything not made of wood was made of iron.
• Europeans were actually lagging technologically, globally speaking as compared to Japan. Ie.
Paper money, refinement of silver from the ore, and the compass.
• Ghost acres – land Europe could use to produce more product. Ie. Jamaica
• Energy crisis – Europeans have to been using too much wood, especially in England. Wood was
essential for construction and energy. The New World was used for access to wood. • England had a surplus of coal. Coal became important in the 18 century. Institutions relocated
themselves near coal supplies because it was very expensive to transport coal. Ie. Cambridge
University located themselves near the river where coal was transported.
• Coal couldn’t do things wood could:
• Surface deposits of coal eventually disappeared; coal miners began to go deeper into the Earth.
• Steam engine – spark of the industrial revolution. Used to deposit iron from the ground. Cost of
• Cooked coal without oxygen to make fuel. Took 50 years to work.
• ^ Key Terms
• Bridges were made of iron.
• Steam boats were invented by Robert Fulton. Tried to sell his product to Napoleon but he turned
it down. th
Jan 26 –Energy & Society
• Invention of the steam engine & coke & iron marks an important part of carbon exposure in the
atmosphere. Growths of trees pull carbon out of the air.
• 1800’s to 2000’s, from when steam engine was invented, carbon concentration increased.
• Invention of railroads accelerated carbon concentration in the atmosphere.
• 1829 first railroad in Europe.
• Manchester was one of the biggest industrial areas.
• Traveling time went from 10 days to 10 hours.
• ^ First time this rapid movement was established.
• Most pub grew their own beer because beer was expensive to transport since it was heavy.
• Age death rates increased due to respiratory failure because of gas emission emitted in the air.
• Water pollution: England had no sanitary water supply. People were infected with Cholera.
• Chemicals such as arsenic were dumped in the water by factories.
• Workers rebelled to machine establishments by breaking them. Soldiers came in to stop the
Jan 31 –Rural/Urban Connections
Thomas Maltus – published book about principle of population. Food production grows at a
steady rate. Human population grows at an accelerated rate. He said that food population
deficiency will always cause a crisis. A crisis could cause a famine, war.
Ghost Acres –
Sustainable Agriculture –
Ecological Poverty –
Corn Laws –
Food Security –
• People started to move to the city. Rural areas are count as ‘backwards’’ and cities are
considered as modern/progress.
• Cities cannot survive without the rural supplies. Examples such as food.
• Many rural people didn’t need the city. The city takes away more from the rural people than the
rural people receives.
• No artificial fertilizer at the time. Although food was static, population was rapidly rising. Food
shortage begun and food prices raised. • Thomas Maltus^
• Rich part of Ireland needed lots of workers (given low wages). Needed to find cheap food for
these industrial workers.
• Ireland is up north. Surplus of grass. Ireland created agriculture through grass-land agriculture.
Animals ate the grass. Provided diary.
• Agriculture was risky. Drought, locus, bird flu -> sheeps die.
Feb 2 nd The Great Hunger
Ecological Poverty –
Colombian Exchange –
Phytophthora Infestans –
Robert Peel –
Corn Laws –
John Russell –
Charles Edward Trevelyan –
Society of Friends –
• Ireland lost 1/3 of its population because of famine.
• Famine happens because Ireland is closely connected to the industrial revolution. • Sustainable agriculture allowed poor people to have some control over their destiny, fortune, food
• Irish farmers where pushed into the commercial market place because it was so closely tied to
• Irish landlords forced tenants to go into the market place.
• Irish Sea was an important body of water for transport. Liverpool was where food supplies were
• Cash crop – farmers strayed from a diverse/sustainable agriculture to grain focused agriculture.
• Ghost acres – acres devote to feed Britain, not Ireland.
• Potato was a “miracle crop”. Farmed in lazy beds (moist/wet beds).
• Potato had more calories/acre than any other crop.
• Rapid growth in population, wealth, disparity
• Irish was not creating food security. Anytime, anywhere when society depends on one crop, that
• The potato came from Peru. “The Columbian Exchange”
• The potato was dangerous to rely on.
• The potato is indigenous to the equator of earth. In the equator, day and night is equal to each
other. This is not the case in Ireland.
• In Ireland, potatoes were genetically frozen to be used for later seasons.
• Potatoes had pathogens that attack them. Potatoes are continuously changing genetically to
defend against pathogens. Pathogens did the same. In Peru, there was a continuous change in
• In Europe, there was no genetic change in potatoes. In 1840’s the high lvled pathogen in Peru
finds its way to Europe and attacks the potatoes in Europe.
Feb 7 – Crisis in America
• The Irish who left the Ireland crisis and entered America were affected by the American crisis. • Andrew Carney immigrated to America (boston) during the famine. Made clothing for sailors.
Made the cheapest clothing. He made default trousers
• Men who were rich had tailors to buy clothes. Men had family to make clothes for them. Poor
people bought clothes from sailor shops.
• Peter Welsh was a carpenter in boston. Joined the union army after he was scared to go home
because he drank away all the money.
• Products of the 18 century ahd relative limited market and a market that had a strong
competition. Questioned if slavery had a economic advance.
• Cotton Gin (1793) was invented by Eli Whitney. With it, cotton production was great produced
• 1793, Slater build a textile mill. The textile development was accelerating. Labor was greatly
• Irish people immigrated to America because of the demands for labor.
• North was urban and industrial and diverse and democratic. Population of the north was growing
• North and south started to grow less like each other.
• William Lloyd Garrison – he founded the anti-slavery paper called the Liiberator. This movement
was popular in the north.
• David Walker (African American) appealed to other my den to fight against slavery
• Frederick Douglass – escaped from slavery and traveled. Engaged in the anti-slavery movement.
• Anti-slavery was when women played a major role. Harriet Stowe(Bostonian) was the author of
Uncle Tom’s Cabin which dramatized the dehumanizing of African Americans in slavery.
• 11 free states and 11 slave states before the Missouri Compromise.
• Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular vote was decided to see if it was a slave state or a free state. The
place was empty.
• May, 1856 Pro-slavery people attacked a town of anti-slavery.
• John Brown led a group of radical people to go against pro-slaves and killed five people. He was
• Lincoln winning the election
• North had limitless power Feb 9 – Liberal Nationalism; Imperial Nationalism
Young Italy [Giovine Italia] –
Giuseppe Mazzini –leader who brought together democracy Young Italy.
King Loui Philippe –
Guizot – banned banquets.
“Mandate of heaven” –
Lin Zexu –
Treaty of Tientsin, 1860 –
• United Kingdom in China.
• Union army used balloons to sight artilleries; not a major sight of history.
• Prior to the war, most people didn’t feel closely connected to their country.
• Monarch claimed to own the country and people were the subject to the monarch. This was the
way of Europeans.
• After the monarchy was overthrown, Italy wanted to become a nation of citizens.
• [Giuseppe Mazzini]^
• Many democratic activist wanted change but the security of Italy was too strong.
• Europe was in an economic distress; hunger; famine. Major factor of the revolution.
• Liberals: university professors, lawyer, medical doctors. They were elites but kept out of power.
Didn’t have a role to play in the govt. • Radicals: Republicans, Socialists, students, Journalists
• Urban working class
• Radicals and liberals had indoor banquets to talk about democratic reforms.
• [Guizot] ^
• Govt. sent out National Guard to attack these protesters. Told National Guard to shoot them but
• Govt. calls out the regular army to Italy to stop the protesters. Army attacks the protesters; 20
• King ends up fleeing France because of the protester’s actions.
• This could potentially give some power to the regular people and food for the hungry,
• The govt. fell after the king fled and protesters weren’t prepared for this.
• Protesters should make a maximum price for bread so the hungry can eat. But the liberals didn’t
• Italy will eventually be a liberal nation.
• British uses opium to keep china from being independent. But opium was illegal in china so china
had to talk to british merchants.
Feb 14 – The Age of Steel
H. Bessemer – British inventor. Built a better artillery shell.
W. Perkin – 18 years old.
Mauve – color.
F. Bayer –
A. Nobel –
Nikola Tesla – responsible for transforming the 19 century into the 20 century. Immigrant in
USA from Serbia. Worked with Thomas Edison at a point. He patented the X-Ray. He made the
electric motor. Notes:
• Steam ships had to carry their own fuel so they could not travel long miles.
• Japan Samurai swords were made out of steel. Japanese steel was the best of all.
• Steel is a special kind of iron.
• Steel was very expensive because it was very hard to make.
• (H. Bessemer) ^
• Steel becomes easier to make and cheaper to buy.
• Rails began to switch to steel rails instead of iron rails because steel rail was more
• German Blast Furnace needed about 13k tons of iron to make 3k tons of better iron. The
other 10k ton were emitted in the air.
• The people working here had to be literate, educated, science engineers.
Feb 21 – Ideologies of Progress
Adam Smith: believed that work was the source of all wealth. Gain wealth by working harder. Believed
that a free market or “invisible hand” will increase work/ society will be wealthier.
Laissez-faire: govt to keep hands off the economy
Bentham – Liberal; extends Adam Smith’s principles to see society interactions. Succeed in health
reform, prison reform, and education reforms; said that education should be given to everyone. Calculus of Felicity – what Bentham calls the measure of happiness and pain that the govt can give to
society to help or guide them.
Panopticon – a prison built easy for people to watch the prisoners.
Saint-Simon – Father of socialism; 16, joined the army to help economy to help America against Britain.
Believed SCIENCE was the answer to all challenges in human society; wanted a technocracy.
Technocracy – a govt. controlled by scientists and industrialists.
Auguste Comte –
Charles Fourier – Precursor of modern technology. He talked about the negative aspect of industrialism;
used human emotions to respond to these negative aspects of industrialism. He wanted society to go
back into a rural society. He wanted cities in a rural industrial kind of society. He believed that if people
who wanted to do something they want that work would be done more efficiently. He wanted people to
have more than one job (farm in the morning, factory in the afternoon, dance in the evening)
Karl Marx – took others thoughts of socialism together. Believed that human society is always engaged in
efficiency; believed that each stage of human technology created a different human culture; recognized
that society will provide a seed of destruction out of their success. Cities making money wanting rights
so they use their money to do so but the govt doesn’t want to give up their rights revolution starts
Das Kapital, 1867
• [Adam Smith]^
• Suez Canal constructed (important). [Charles Fourier]^
Feb 23 – The “New” Imperialism
Afghan Wars -
- 1839 to 1842: (during the time of the opium war) Afghanistan signs treaty to british to
gain interest in afghan’s govt/culture. Afghan citizens did not like this treaty. Rebelled
and attacked British army. - 1879 to 1880: British tried to gain tribal leader’s support through fear of the British.
- 1919: British tried to take over again; failed.
Quinine – A plant Britain will cultivate and use to cure themselves from diseases in Africa.
Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi – saw the suppression of Islam and saw British control. He
kills the British trapp