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EXAM 2 below History fall 12-13.docx

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Boston College
HIST 1011
Owen Stanwood

EXAM 2 below: 10/23/12 STATES AND EMPIRE The Process of State Formation - “Overmighty subjects” - Taxation - War - Political culture Absolute Moarchy: The Case of France - Louis XIV: ruled france for over 70 years. Built the most centralize state. Was the most powerful king during the time. During the time, the kingdom was separated into group. Ppl wanted to gain more power than the royal family. It was eventually broken up. This just showed how hard it wa to govern france. There were many languages. Different political traditions, ppl thought of themselves as French. 1661, Louis took control of the kingdom and established his own power, made theory : royal absolutism: he said that the old theory , a king was chosen by a god, could not be questioned by anybody. Louis wanted to replace the dukes, ppl who were in charge of france, with his guys. His guys were in the circle of the king and was supposed to influence ppl the Kings way. [we will lower taxes but you have to listen to the king and do what he says]. [l’etat c’est moi and Versailles] - The Fronde - Intendants - L’etat, c’est moi: Louis’ model that all power comes from him. Louis’ fashion and building showed how power he was. - Versailles: a place where Louis projected his GREAT POWER. - Scrofula (king’s evil): if a king touched you, you would be healed of the disease Scrofula. Louis did this more often. This was the idea that the king was touched by god. - Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685): Louis used religion to show his power. After 1598, there were enables of Protestant teachings. Louis did not want this, he wanted everyone to be Catholics. He thought that Protestant teachings would change ppl’s mind of his ruling. 1685, he went to work and tried to get these Protestants to convert to Catholicism. - Limited Monarchy: The Case of England - James I - Association - Parliament - “Monarchical republic”: Powerful monarch but a another monarch that actually did the work. - Charles I: wanted to rule without parliament. This worked fine until he needed money for war so now he had to talk to the parliament. He ask them and they refused. Parliament formed an army and fought with Charles. Civil war. Charles died, got his head cut off. In conclusion, he created treason against himself. It was a big deal that a king was killed in public [scaffold]. - Commonwealth and Protectorate - Charles II: build a beauocracy similar to france. Led to a second revolution - James II: was brought down from the throne. - William III: came into the throne. - Glorious Revolution - Anti-Catholicism From States to Empires - Composite Monarchy - Imperium - Mercantilism The Practice of Empire - New Hampshire - Edward Cranfield - Thomas Thurton NOTES: STATES AND EMPIRES States and Empire (10/23) Summary: Kings were important but only through emotional pulls on citizens. It was difficult to convince and control their citizens. During this time, money was needed to fight wars. Citizens were struck with high taxes. In France, Louis XIV created a whole new system to help citizens cope with these changes. He, also at the time, wanted to show his power so he built very fancy structures in France. Louis wanted to show his citizen that he was God like through examples of Scrofula (healing hands). Louis also wanted France to be a Catholic nation. At the time, there were Protestants lingering around France. Louis was afraid that these Protestants would change people’s mind about his ruling. Louis tried his best to convert Protestants. In England, their ruling was quite different. They were ruled by a monarchical republic ( a powerful monarch but another monarch did all their work). Charles I wanted to rule without the help of the Parliament. It worked fine until he needed money for war. He asked the Parliament for money but they said no. both sides fought and Charles I lost. Charles II came about and created a beauocracy similar to France’s. - Political history studied the most elite people; examples: Cortes, legislatures. - Kings were important but only important because they had the emotional pull on citizens. - How were kings able to convince their citizens, allowing them to rule? - 1500’s European places, kings acquired greater power, created beaucracy more tax and army. - States needed money to fight wars. Almost everything a king did in central government was to fight wars. - State formation was a cultural process as much a political process. Ruler had to convince citizens to adapt to huge changes in society. Examples would be high taxes, having to be governed by certain people. - FRANCE - LOUIS XIV - L’ETAT C’EST MOI - VERSAILLES - SCROFULA - Louis used religion to show his power. After 1598, there were enables of Protestant teachings. Louis did not want this, he wanted everyone to be Catholics. He thought that Protestant teachings would change ppl’s mind of his ruling. 1685, he went to work and tried to get these Protestants to convert to Catholicism. - ENGLAND o Also used the theory of absolutism o Slightly diff in creating an ideal absolutism like france. o Most things happened at a county level. But, ppl at county level had some sort of role at making the govt work o There was also a theory of limited monarchy: the association: a group of nobles who came together, during Elizabeth was threat and pope said whoever wanted to resist her was able to, if Elizabeth was overthrown, we will take control of govt in our own hand and not let any catholics take control. This means that ppl could resist a monarch and in this case it was religion. o England also had the issue of taxes. King could lower the taxes for ppl but only if it is approved by the House Of Common in the Parliament. Tax was usally a gift to the king. o Powerful monarch but another monarch that actually di the work o CHARLES I o After his death, CHARLES II came about o JAMES II o WILLIAM III th - By 18 century, these two were center of empires. - What is an empire? o There is no higher power. o Imperium: sovereignty: control over a certain control: king didn’t have direct control over the place; he just had some sort of power over it. o Building an empire, like a state, required consent. o Land broken up into small parts (composite?) o o Empires were difficult to manage.  Storytime: Colony of New Hampshire: two men , one was governor, and one who worked for him. At this time, there were only 4 towns, couple thousand ppl. Didn’t produced anything, useless. Was part of MA but the king hated MA because ppl didn’t listen to him. When an opportunity came to break up from MA, they took it. King wanted revenues for army and rode fixing. He wanted more power in central govt: wanted ppl to do what he said. During this time, the governor was given this office to find ways of increasing revenue. He went to the citizens asking for money, but they did not want to give him money. Didn’t believe he was legit. At some point he realized that ppl were going to kill him. He ask his assistant to go ask for revenue. The citizens were bullies to him. Nothing worked. The governor asked for another job. ‘ • Why was it so hard for the governor to convince ppl and get them to listen to him • The lesson is that Kings had a special way of convincing people and getting the citizens to listen to them. • The governor did cruel ways of trying to convince people. He pissed them off. 10/25/12 The beginnings of Global War Introduction William Phips: Louis de Buade, conte de Frontenac “Beyond the Line” The Politics of Mercantilism Political Economy Jean-Baptiste Colbert Navigation Acts Angle-Dutch Wars St. Christopher/St. Kitts European … NOTES: The Beginnings of of Global War (10/25) Summary: the more wealth one gained, the more power the king brought to the nations. Trading was a leeway of getting that wealth/power so England and French/Dutch/British were battling for it. England started with the Navigation Acts which only allowed English ships to trade in English ports. This cut off all other colonial ships. Another major event that happened through trading wars was in the Caribbean: St. Christopher/St. Kitts. French and England each owned a side of the land. It was peaceful until the French decided to ally with the Dutch and go and attack/steal things on the English side. English realized that they were no longer safe among these French. Along with the French were Indians who randomly attacked the English; usually at night. This brought a scare but a now more closely bonded England together. There were naval battles going on. There were Fort territory battles going on. - More wealth than your enemy= more power o We see this in kings o War could be part of gaining more part of this stuff. o Could also gain more through trade war - Economy growth : mercantilism: providing wealth to the mother country from overseas whether it is sugar, silver, tobacco would flow to the metropolis - John-Baptiste Colbert: had something to do with mercantilism - English and Dutch rivalry because of trade war. - Navigation Act: 1651, declared only English ships could trade in English ports. This would cut off any other colonial ships. All the produce had to be brought to England first before trading to other places. - NY – Dutch’s hotspot. - St. Christopher: one of the first English island in the Caribbean. - There was a french colony on one side and English colony on the other. They shared the island. Ppl from the two sides passed by each other for religious, trading purposes. - One day, France allied with Dutch and decided to go over to the English side and take things from them: o Supplies to make sugar o Slaves - English got their land back at the end of the conflict but not the things that were stolen. - A decade later when they were at peace, English noticed French naval ships outside St. Christopher just boarded there. o English realize that they were no longer safe amongst these French - English general who won battle of glenhein. - During this time, when wars were fought, ppl showed up and shot at each other. - 1690, couple hundred native americans allied with new france entered English land(NY) and killed many, took many back to france. This also happened in many bordering areas. - During this time, native Americans raided the English anytime the had an opportunity. Many English taken were slaves. o These were small scale raids o The fact that it could happen anytime, they caused a panic in New England. o Brought lots of ppl into the war in a way they wouldn’t before. - English decided to fight back: making large expeditions. - Colonists were going to die for their country. o These new Englanders started to see themselves more as a “family”. o It was all because of the native american’s threat which brought them together. - During this time, north American naval army sucked more than carribean navals. French sponsored carribean navals. th - 18 century, the britsh naval army was what gave them power, protection, rank. o Navys were police trade: navys had a positive connotation o Sir francis wheeler: invading a sugar island for the british. He sucked. Failed. Got bad feedback. o 18 century, navy had more success: Edward fighting in gencons ear battle in panama. o Edward became a hero. Took over Columbia (cartaheinia). Ended up losing badly. o Final battle. Brightish took over a French colony. They built the strongest fort there. This was their deadiest weapon.louis wanted it to be so big that blah blah blah.ppl set out to capture it. Over four thousand men William pepero. They captured the French fort. Great moment for boston. The war ended the britsh something something. French gave it back to them. They liked protecting their india better than the fort. o Royal/national interest: philosophy that if youre in London looking outat the empire, this was the abstract empire: sugar land here, fort here, you could determine wat was important, what was not. 10/30/12 The Golden Age of Piracy The Buccaneers of Port Royal: - Jamaica: - Privateering: - Piracy: practice of organized theft in the high seas. Piracy was as old as roman times and 15 centuries. - Smuggling: - Navigation acts: - Henrey Morgan: - Bartho Sharpe: - High Court of Admirality: - Richard Coney: - St. Thomas: The Captain Kidd Fiasco: - Leeward islands: - William kidd: - Robert Livingston: - Richaard coote, earl of Bellomont: - Pilgrim fleet: - Mughal Empire - Ste. Marie (Madagascar) The War Against The New Providence Pirates: - “Villains of All Nations” - Treaty of Utrecht (1713) - Edward teach (Blackbeard) - Queen Anne’s Revenge - Woodes Rogers - Stede Bonnet NOTES: The Golden Age of Piracy The Golden Age of Piracy Summary: At the time, more people worked as pirates. Almost all pirates were smugglers (people who traded/brought in illegal products) and it was hard to tell if one was a pirate or not. Some did piracy (stealing things over high seas). Some had legal rights to do so through privateering. Because the Caribbean held ships from all different nations, this was the hotspot for pirates. In the islands of Jamaica, this was where people bought and repair goods. Some well-known pirates were Henry Morgan, Barta Sharpe (the guy who got away with things because he had connections), Kidd(guy who stole Mughal Empire ships and was captured and killed), and Edward Teach (AKA Blackbeard who was a ruthless figure; was killed). A person who was known for capturing pirates was Woodes Rogers. Pirate age eventually ended and did not really affect the economy as much anymore. - Pirates as national hero vs. enemies of the state - Piracy: time when more people worked as “pirates” - Ships of all diff nations in Caribbean so this place was a hotspot for pirates. - Island of Jamaica (English land): o Place to repair ships, buy shit. Clothes, etc… o It was difficult to control pirates here. o Henrey Morgan: one of the most famous pirates. He was actually the governor. o Smuggling: selling/bringing in/trading illegal products. Nearly every pirate were smugglers. o Navigation Acts: passed to control the pirates: o By this time, it was difficult to tell if a person was a pirate or a regular trader. o Bartha Sharpe: was in Jamaica and joined the Buccaneers. 1679 he joined a buccaneers expedition to go against Morgan’s. they captured many ships. Stole 15k silvers, many other valuable shit, found a valuable map. Was charged with piracy and murder at High Court of Admiralty. He found his way out of this trouble. He bribed the English with the valuable map. He went back to the Caribbean to continue his work. Went on a rampage in Bermuda. Stole natives. Coney: a governor; took in Sharpe and worked together to go against other governors. Sharpe is now considered as a chief. Eventually, a warrant came up to plead Sharpe guilty. He got away from trouble. Point of the story: even though he did bad things, he had his connections to keep his from trouble. He helped the empire’s economy - Piracy: practice of organized theft in the high seas. Piracy was as old as roman times th and 15 centuries. - Privateering: same concept as piracy. Had a document by the European to do such things. A way of stealing back what was stolen from them. - 1695, Kidd, a pirate, went to Madagascar to go against Pilgrim ships. They belonged to the Mughal Empire but Kidd didn’t care and stole pilgrim ships because he knew it had valuables. o Kidd continued on his looting journey. At the same time, he had problems with this crew. Was typical. When he came back to his hometown, he noticed things had changed. Empire was governed by a diff govt. this diff govt (Bellemont) arrested Kidd, he was hanged. The end. - This marked a close end on piracy. - But, as wars came about, piracy returned. - Treaty of Utrecht ended the war. - Although Port Royal was now dangerous for pirates to be around, Caribbean islands were still highly populated with pirates. - Edward Teach: pirate. Known for ruthlessness towards enemy, womanlessness, and his beard. Joined another crew and set off North Atlantic. Stole a ship and called it the Queen Anne’s Revenge. Was killed and beheaded - Woodes Rogers: job was to find and capture pirates. - The golden age of piracy soon ended. There were still pirates but the economy was not affected by them anymore. - So? It is interesting to see the transformation of famous pirates. 11/1/12 Indigenous Peoples: Accommodation and Resistance Introduction - Creative adaptation The Iroquois Confederacy - Mohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Cayugas, Senecas - Hiawatha: - Deganiwidah (The Peacemaker) - Words of Concolence: - Great League of Peace and Power - Mourning Wars - Huron Confederacy - Covenant Chain - King;s Philip’s War (1675-6) - Four Indian Kings (1710) Pueblos and Spaniards - Juan de Onate - Franciscans - Kivas - Pueblo Revolt - Pope - Diego de Vargas Cannibal Encounters in the Caribbean - Caribs - Runaway slaves: NOTES:Indigenous Peoples: Accommodation and Resistance Indigenous Peoples: Accommodation and Resistance (11/1) Summary: This section talks about groups of Iroquois conflicts, religion conflicts with Plueblos, and the Europeans being scared of Carib’s. 1. The Iroquois confed (the groups) usually had wars with each other. A guy named Hiawatha came about to keep the peace in the society. Each year, they said their words of condolences to keep the peace but this really made each tribe more egotistic. Now, the tribes were stealing women to reproduce and have people help in agriculture. Meanwhile, the French is trying to control the Iroquois but they are intolerable. The Iroquois allies with England. 2. Juan de Onate is the guy who found Pueblos when trying to find gold in Mexico. He forced the Puebloes to pay tribute and convert to Christianity. Some were converted, some were forced. Pueblos revolted and came about victorious. The Spanish would come back and take over but this time would be more soft on the Pueblos. 3. The Europeans were scared of the Caribs because of the stories they were told about the Caribs. This was what allowed the Caribs to survive amongst the Europeans but then disease struck them. They adopted other tribes into their tribes. - Natives and Indians were almost extinct by now. But even with the Spanish Conquest, the few of these native americans creatively adapted in certain ways: o Some chose to go against by fighting o Some allied with the Spaniards from the start or allied after warring - Upstate NY: life was obviously tough with European settlement. - BUT, the irooquois confed, representing the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onodagas, Cayugas, Senecas, were agriculturalist. They spoke the same language and lived in the same area but these nations were frequently at war. The decline of a certain place was bad time for them because it was the central of trade. - Hiawatha came about to keep the peace in society. - each year, a representative from each tribe would come together to renew their words of condolences so they would keep this peace. - This however, only made each tribes more egotistic. - Mourning wars: tribes wanted women because they were good at agriculture and that they could reproduce. Rival warriors captured were tortured and killed through their rituals o Things that excited these wars:  Adopting ppl because of low pop from disease  Europeans came about which would cause wars…? - Iroquois joined forces with the Heron Confederacy to go against… Europeans? - New firearms changed mourning wars. - The French now feared the Iroquois tremendously. They could never defeat them. - The dutch formed an alliance with the French and this helped them. - Covenant Chain: an alliance in north America. Iroquois and English alliance. - The Iroquois was significant to this alliance because… o King’s Philip’s War (1675-6): rose up against English colony. Went to Iroquois and told them to join him to go against English people. Iroquois said no and chased him away. o Four Indian Kings (1710): 4 Iroquois was sent to England. Something happened idk. - Mexico was ruled by some guy who tried to find gold there. Didn’t happen by he found Pueblos instead. He forced pueblos to pay him tributes. Tried to convert them by adding Christian flavor to their rituals. This made many pueblos convert. Some just forced Pueblos to convert. Franciscans(guys who took over Mexico). - Juan de Onate - Franciscans: people who tried to convert the Pueblos - Kivas - Pueblo Revolt: pueblos who cme together to kick out a colonial power. Succeeded. - Pope: a guy in charge of this kicking out the colonial power. He did a lot of damage. They killed 2/3 Franciscans. There were 32 Franciscans. - Although Pueblos took over, they were still having problems. The only thing good that came out of this was the fact that they could practice their faith again. - Of course, this victory didn’t last. Another Spanish leader was sent down to take over. - Although it seemed as though nothing really came about for Pueblo, this revolt was a success o The Spanish were more gentler on the pueblos the second time around. - Diego de Vargas: - Cannibal Encounters in the Caribbean - Caribs: one of the first ppl Europeans heard about when they came to the new world. Europeans were given a bad description about the Caribs by the Tainos. - The English feared the Caribs tremendously. - This fear led the Caribs to a safer path; they survived. Of course disease struck them but they accepted runaway slaves. - Runaway slaves: Caribs adopted new African ppl to their tribe. 11/6/12 Varieties of Atlantic Christianity Introduction: - Enlightenment: - “Age of Revolution” political movement replacing modern age. - Secularization: movement from age of faith to the age of reason. The Quaker Diaspora - Society of Friends (quakers) - James Naylor - Inner Light - George Fox - William Penn - “Holy Experiement” The Origins of Evangelicalism - Revivals - Northampton - Solomon Stoddard - Jonathan Edwards - “Sacramental occasions” - Field conventicles - Itinerants - George Whitefield The Moravian Atlantic - Unitas Fratrum - Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf - Anton Ulrich - St. Thomas - David Zeisberger NOTES: Varieties of Atlantic Christianity Varieties of Atlantic Christianity (11/6) Summary: This was when science what the new topic. As this happened, crazy things happened within religions. People like Jame Naylor thought that they were holy and did crazy things. These people were killed. People of the Quakers, on the other hand, were criticized at one point for their beliefs but because they were rich, they expanded elsewhere. Quakers like George Fox preached to slaves. William Penn, who was a rich Quaker, founded Pennsylvania and make a place of free religious practice. Among Quakers were revivals; people who woke up sleepy people and told them they would go to hell unless they do such things to get to heaven. A famous revivalist was Northampton and his godson Jonathan Edwards. Other than Quakers were itinerants who preached everywhere. George Whitefield is a famous one. May Christians chose to convert slaves. The point of this lecture is to show the expansion of religion. - (introduction key terms) - Science and rationality undermined the power of the church - Beginning of science vs religion. - Although churches start to decline, we see intense religious change: change in diff types of religion. - Religious change 1650-18 century 9 Atlantic world (especially north) o New world as a refuge for the persecuted. o 1656: English city: port city. Sunday and everyone is in church. James Naylor thought he would try to reenact the story of Palm Sunday. He believed in inner light: he knew he was blessed and that he was going to go to heaven. To him, he thought this was rational but everyone thought he was crazy. He was tried for his life. he was whipped, tortured, and his occupation ended. o Many people like Naylor were persecuted, sent to jail, etc… o Quakers survived in the middle atlantic and thrived. They served as an example how European expansion could allow them to practice their religion. o Protestants rejected good works: doing good deed to be in heaven. God predestined you to go to heaven or hell before you were born. o Direct revelation: this is a position for the quakers. If you are gonna head to heaven, God as going to hint it to you.  Protestants thought this was wrong because… • Priests would be useless •  Many did not like the quakers for this. o 1657, thousands of quakers were in prison. o Although persecuted, quakers were wealthy and had connections throughout the world. They began to move out of the atlantic. o George Fox: First quakers to preach to the slaves. o William Penn: wealthy and connected man. As teenager, he went to Ireland to study. Met missionary and converted. Because he was so rich and connected, he was on the highest quaker level. Founded Pennsylvania: he made this colony a place of free religious practice , especially those who couldn’t worship their religion where they live. He wanted to make this colony the Netherlands of America. This colony started to grow fast. The colony filled with ppl from all over Europe.  Pennsylvania: showed how the minority could rise in particular ways. - Birth of evangelicalism: o o The Moravian Atlantic - Unitas Fratrum - Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf - Anton Ulrich - St. Thomas - David Zeisberger o o Revivals: common in some protestant society: observants. When sleepy ppl are awaken by this person who will tell them how they will go to hell and that they should do such things in order to go to heaven.  Northampton: hotspot for revivals. Home for a Solomon Stoddard. Allowed anyone to take take communion. He had a lot of power from his minister. Because of his personality, he was very powerful. He hired his grandson named Jonathan Edwards. Edwards was very intelligent. When his father died, Edwards took over. Edwards noticed a change in congregation. He wrote a book about revival an
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