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Midterm Study Guide on Globalization

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Boston College
HIST 1019

January 21 st American Revolutions Features and Background of theAtlantic Revolutions • Importance of the context of international politics • Revolutions were not inevitable • Revolutionary warfare often civil war • Goal of the revolution: sovereignty, not democracy o Nature of the revolutionary rule was usually authoritarian • Background/ developments that shaped revolutions: o Enlightenment ideas  People decide they have the right to choose their government. Did not necessarily mean all people o Seven Year’s War  Britain’s victory over French, set upAmerican, French, and Haitian revolutions later on Enlightenment • Developed political and social ideas that challenged foundations • Locke: gov’ts receive authority to rule from the people, not God • Montesquieu • Rousseau: envisioned a society where all members were free, equal in rights, and worked for the common good • Enlightenment ideas undermined the position/premise of aristocracy (upper class still had certain rights/privileges) Impact of the Seven Year’s War/French Indian War • Last major conflict between great powers of Europe before the French Revolution (look at map in PPT of allies) • Overseas colonial struggle, French struggle for control in NorthAmerica • Victory of Britain determined control of colonies in NorthAmerica (look at map in PPT) • Balance of power in Europe, no big nation should be strong enough to impose its will upon the other nations o When Britain won, the French realized this balance of power had changed o War ended French threat to Britain’s power in NorthAmerica o British colonists less dependent on the mother country because they didn’t need as much protection now that the French threat was gone • Consequence increased British state debt o They began to seek ways to make colonies pay for this debt • Brought France’s former colonists under British rule • Colonies could elect their own officials, assemblies, modeled after British parliament- they became more independent • 1763 relations take a turn for the worse, due to Pontiac’s rebellion o Midwest tribes who had traded with the French rebelled under the prospect of being ruled by the British o Destroyed outposts on the British frontier, the British responded by giving peace talks, gifted them with blankets infected with small pox… o In order to prevent further conflicts, British closed the frontier and forbade settlements past theAppalachians • British attempts to raise revenue disturbed the colonists • 1765 Parliament passed StampAct- required newspapers, flyers, etc. to be stamped with a royal seal and taxed it • 9 of the 13 colonies sent • 1767 TownsendAct- increased taxes on colonial imports o Boycott in 1770, London removed all taxes except on tea • 1770-1773 there was a brief period of colonial harmony; economic situation improved, growth in trade, manufacturing, and mining • Tensions then rose again-taxes on tea rose to help the struggling East India Company o Attempted to sell tea duty-free on the mainland, which failed, so they moved to colonies and gave them a monopoly on selling tea to them o Colonists saw this as a plan that was a scheme to conceal the tea tax o Led to the Boston Tea Party • 1770- British reacted to the Tea Part by enacting in 1774 the ___ acts • Continental Congress with 12 delegates met in Philadelphia to deem theActs illegal and called on Massachusetts to rebel o * Even at this point in the spring of 1775, many colonists did not want to split from the motherland • Pamphlets began to spread around to remind people of how the British were trampling the rights of the colonists • Continental Congress created the ContinentalArmy o English king tried to crush this army by sending German mercenaries • Declaration of Independence in July 1776, gave the colonists an inspiring cause to fight for o Reference to John Locke- English government wasn’t following the rights they were supposed to be providing, so colonists had the right to rebel • Colonists had several disadvantages because of separately trained militias, they lacked coherence and military experience o On the other hand, Britain had a well-trained army and a very powerful navy • Colonists learned to avoid open field battle because Britain was strong here • Advantages for colonists o Not every British person was desperate to keep the colonies, they were fighting far from home, their heart wasn’t always in this conflict o French helped colonists because they were still bitter about the Seven Year’s War • 1780 succession of defeats of revolutionaries made the situation seem bleak and almost led to a collapse of the revolution, until George Washington won a battle in Yorktown, VAand this was the beginning of the end of the war The Revolutionary War and its Consequences • Colonist’s military advantages and disadvantages • Early British initiatives • Changing momentum after 1777 • British surrender at Yorktown, 1781 • Peace of Paris, 1783 and the consequences o
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